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C«« No. 



DSDQ7 DSfiSSIl 

California State Library 



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CBAI I HAMBBKS, P McG UCBBAN, 

*uwt l'*t-/'mHrmt Sttntmty. 

I stabUahcd i.s'75. -♦- Incorporated 1886. 



(AJALOGUE No. 22 

GLADDING, McBEAN J GO. 

Manufacturers of 
VITRIFIED, SALT GLAZED 

SEWER PIPE, 



Water Pipe. Terra-Cotta Chimney Pipe and Tops. 



/^rckitectural Terra -Qotta, 

Lawn Vases, J-'ire Br/cic, Fire Tile, 

Flower X*otm, Fire Clay. Fire Brick Dust, 

Drain Tile. Stove Linfng-Sj Culvert Pipe?, 

Acid Rece/i-ers, Acid Croclcs, Well Tubing-, 

Roman FJriclc, Enameled BriaJc, Htc, Etc. 



jfTRiT^ooFijviq * 

FOR BUILDING PURPOSES, 

MANUFACTORY AT LINCOLN, PLACER COUNTY, CAL. 

Lincoln is on the Oregon Division of the Central Pacific R. R., 10 miles from its junction with the Central Pacific. 



San Francisco Office and Depot : 

Nos. 1358 and 1360 MARKET STREET. 
Telephone No. 3041. 



TO THE T^AT)E. 



We would respectfully- present for your consideration a 
Catalogue and Price List of the principal articles manufactured 
by us. giving also sufficient illustrations of the same to enable 
those who are not familiar with such goods to make their orders 
understandingly. Should you require anything in our line, 
which is not specih'ed herein, send us a full description and 
drawing of the article required, and in all probability we can 
furnish it with reasonable dispatch. 

Every description of ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA 

work made to order. 

We make a specialty of furnishing EIRE - PROOFING for 

building purposes . 

Our first aim is, excellence in quality and to produce such 
goods as are certain to give' satisfaction. Sow well we have 
succeeded in this we think is answered by the rapid increase of 
our business. We have been compelled to add to the capacity 
of our works yearly, to meet the increasing demand for our 
goods. 

Thankful for your past patronage, and promising increased 
efforts to turn out satisfactory work, we solicit a continuance 
of your trade. 

Yours truly. 

Gladding, dWcBean & Co. 

A liberal discount to the trade. 
The numbers and prices given in this Catalogue, supersede those in previous issues. 




Do not cut or tear this Catalogue to send 
us the Engravings. 

In ordering, give the Engraving Number 
and the Size of article wanted. 

For Index see Pages 94 and 95. 



GET THE BEST/ 

Our Salt Glazed 




Is the Standard tohereoer it has been brought before the Public. 



True in Form, Perfectly Fitting Joints, Compactness of Body. 



Sold as Low as any Pipe of Equal Quality. 

It is manufactured from a combination of the celebrated LINCOLN CLAYS, which, 
by careful analysis, are found to be unequaled for this purpose. 

By skilled labor and powerfgl machinery, of the latest and best designs, 
the material is rendered homogeneous and uniform throughout — under great pressure 
(steam presses being used for the purpose), the pipe is made very compact and at 
high temperature becomes of a thoroughly vitrified and iron-like body, which is 
impervious to the action of acids, gases and steam, all of which are found in 
the city sewers. 

The kilns in which these pipes are burned are so constructed as to secure a uni- 
form heat, vitrifying each piece of pipe. Tests of a similar pipe, by hydrostatic 
pressure, at the East, where it has been used for over thirty years, with entire satis- 
faction to city authorities, and also by external crushing at the Navy Yard at Wash- 
ington, in competition with the best American, English and Scotch Pipe, showed a 
strength superior to any other pipe. 

With largely increased facilities for manufacturing, this pipe can now be offered 
in quantities to suit purchasers, in sizes from 3 to 24-inch caliber, with the latest and 
most improved fittings. 



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GLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY. 



Description of Setoer Pipe and Fittings. 

(See illustrations and price list on pages 4. and 5.) 



Sewer Pipe. — We make our Sewer Pipe with sockets, two feet in length, and 3, 4, 
5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 inches inside diameter. 

Y and T Branches. — Our branches are made in two-foot lengths, with either Y 
or T inlets. The inlets on 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 10-inch pipe can be of any of these sizes, but 
not exceeding the~main in diameter ; thus, on a six-inch pipe the inlets can be 3, 4, 5 or 
6-inch, and on a 10-inch pipe, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 or 10-inch. 

The inlets on 12, 14, 16 and 18-inch pipe can be of any size from six inches, to within 
two inches of the main in diameter; thus, inlets on 18-inch pipe are 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 or 16- 
inch. Smaller inlets on these sizes are made to order. Inlets on 24-inch pipe we make 
to order, and they can be of any size up to eighteen inches. 

Y inlets should be used wherever practicable, so that the two currents may flow in 
the same direction. T branches tend to form eddies, and consequently deposits in the 
main sewer. 

Elbows and Curves — Of 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 inches in diameter, are 
always kept in stock, and larger sizes are made to order. 

Hand Hole Trap. — We make these of 3, 4, 5,5.6, 8 and 10-inch diameter, with 
hand holes or fresh-air inlets. When the sewer is deep, the hand hole can be lengthened 
by placing one or more pieces of pipe of the requisite size upon the hand hole of the trap, 
through which the trap can be cleansed when desired. 

Our 4, 5, 6, 8 and 10-inch traps are provided with 4-inch hand holes, and the 3-inch 
traps with 3-inch hand holes. 

P Trap. — This trap is used to form a trap with a perpendicular into a horizontal 
pipe at the upper end of the sewer, or under the bowl of a water closet. The soil from 
the hopper falls directly into the water, and will not adhere to the pipe. This trap has 
the advantage of a perpendicular fall of sewerage to assist in dislodging solid matter. 

We make these of 3, 4, 5 and 6-inch diameter ; the 4, 5 and 6-inch with 4-inch hand 
holes, if desired. 

S Trap. — An 5" trap is used to form a trap with two perpendicular pipes, in the 
upper stories of buildings. They have the same advantages as the P trap over the other 
forms. We make these of 3-inch, 4-inch, 5-inch and 6-inch diameter, the 4, 5 and 6-inch 
with hand holes, if desired. 

Reducers and Increasers. — These are used to reduce or increase the size of 
sewers. When ordering, give the inside diameter at both, ends, also on which end (small 
or large) the socket is required. If this is done, there will be no mistakes made in filling 
orders. 

Slants. — In the construction of a brick sewer, slants should be built into the wall, 
to receive the lateral or side sewers, the bevel of the slant being flush with the inside of 
the main sewer, thus forming a Y branch. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 



Our "Second Quality" Sewer Pipe. 



To Railroad Companies, County Commissioners, City Authorities, Civil Engi- 
neers, Builders, Contractors, Farmers, and to all whom it may concern. 

Through the process of burning, some of the pipes are liable to blister, crack, or lose 
their perfect form, which renders them unfit for city or private sewers, in which all manner 
of filth is conducted ; but for drainage of ordinary 

Cities and Towns, Swamp Lands, Culverts for Railroads, 
Roadways, and Linings for Wells. 

they answer the purpose, and can be bought at a much less price. [See Price List on 
this page.] 

Price List of Second-Class Vitrified Sewer Pipe. 



Caliuer of Pipe. 



Price 
per Foot. 



6 Inch. 

8 Inch. 
10 Inch. 
12 Inch. 
14 Inch. 
16 Inch.. 
18 Inch. 
20 Inch.. 
22 Inch.. 
24 Inch . 



'■15 
.20 

•3° 
•37^ 
•5° 
.62^ 

' 75 / 
•»7^ 

•05 

•25 



Area 
in Inches. 

28^ 

50^ 

78^ 
113 
154 
201 

254K 

3H 

380 



WEIGHT 

per Foot. 

16 Lbs. 
2 2 Lbs. 

31 Lbs. 

41 Lbs. 

50 Lbs. 

66 Lbs. 

80 Lbs. 

go Lbs. 

105 Lbs. 

120 Lbs. 



Fket to 

Carload of 

10 Tons. 



1250 
900 
650 
490 
4OO 
3O0 
250 
220 
190 
170 




Water Closet Bowl. 




Slop Hopper. 



No. 1. 
No. 2. 
No. 3 



Price and Dimensions of Water Closet Bowls. 




13 Inches. Price $1.00 

15 " " 1-25 

15 " " 1-50 



Price and Dimensions of Slop Hoppers. 



Depth, 9 Inches 



Width, 13 Inches Price, 75 Cents. 



GLADDING, 



McBEAN & COMPANY. 



Grease Traps. 



Inside 

Diameter of 

Outlet 

3 inches. 




Inside 

Diameter of 

Inlet 

3 inches. 



NOTICE. Use three inch pipe to connect grease traps with the lateral sewers. 

Price List of Grease Traps. 



Number. 


Price. 


Inside Diameter. 


Depth. 


Capacity. 


I 
2 


$4 oo 
5 oo 


12 inches 
16 inches 


13 inches 
18 inches 


3 gallons 
7 gallons 



We call the attention of Architects, Contractors, Masons, Plumbers and all persons 
who lay drains, to the above invention for preventing the fouling and obstruction of sewers 
and drains by the deposit of grease therein. 

The most common and certain cause of obstruction to house - drains arises from 
grease, which, though fluid when hot, soon cools in the drains, and gradually, but cer- 
tainly, closes them up. We have known drains thirty to fifty feet in length closed nearly 
the whole distance from this cause. The amount which will collect from the waste of a 
single family is surprising to those who are not familiar with the subject. It ordinarily 
causes much more expense and inconvenience to allow this substance to run into the drain 
than to catch it in a grease trap, from which it can conveniently be removed. 

This method of catching the grease keeps the sewer clean, and bv not permitting it to 
enter the sewer, of course does away with the possibility of decomposition of this substance, 
thus disposing effectually of one of the most active agents in creating that poisonous 
SEWER GAS so dangerous to health. 

We earnestly recommend the use of the above trap in all drains leading from sinks in 
kitchens, as it will be found thoroughly effective in its operation. 

N. B. — Place as near the kitchen sink as possible, so that there shall be the least prac- 
ticable length of pipe to accumulate grease. 

They are made of the same material as our sewer pipe. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 

Sewerage: 

General Information on the Subject. 



Owing to the prevalence of malignant fevers, directly traceable to violations of 
sanitary laws, the public lias begun to realize the necessity for thorough systems of 
sewerage and drainage, and is inquiring into the mode ol obtaining the most satisfac- 
tory results. 

Fortunately a -large amount of data is at hand to be drawn from, based ,upon the 
practical experience of many years close and intelligent observation by eminent civil 
engineers, possessing special attributes for their work, and whose observations come to 
us officially embodied in exhaustive reports to boards of commissioners, city councils, 
state legislatures and national legislative bodies. 

The information to be derived from a careful perusal of all the literature on sani- 
tary drainage would be of incalculable benefit to all, vet few have the time and fewer 
still the inclination to thoroughly study this subject. 

Hence, we have condensed a few facts which we take the liberty of presenting to 
a thinking public. For further details, we refer our readers to such works as "Sew- 
erage and Land Drainage," by Col. Geo. E. Waring; and "Sanitary Engineering," by 
Baldwin Latham. 

We will mail to any one on application, Col. Waring's report on the sewerage 
system of Memphis, Tenn. This report is most valuable to engineers and others 
interested in sewerage. 

Under the Mosaic law. a strict observance of sanitary laws was a part ol their 
religious duty; but in time " the people sank to the lowest depths of sanitary neglect, 
from which the powerful voices of typhus, plague and cholera were the first to arouse 
them." 

Impure air, produced by decomposing matter, or germs of disease, which abound 
in large cities or towns imperfectly drained, and found in a lesser degree in the country 
.surrounding the same, poisons the blood effectually. 

Water having the power of drawing and absorbing the impurities from the air, 
may become freighted with the germs of disease. 

Your well drains the water from the surrounding earth a long distance. It is 
estimated that a well will drain rive feet in all directions for every foot in depth, thus 
a well twenty feet deep will drain a space two hundred feet in diameter. 

Filth chemically mixed with water cannot be filtered from it, hence the danger of 
vaults and cesspools, from which the liquids are absorbed by the earth. Residence on a 
damp soil engenders consumption, while drainage of that soil lessens it. 

The impurities from a vault, seeping into a well in a New York village, gave typhoid 
fever to 43 persons, of whom 10 died. 

Impurities from a vault getting into the water pipes of Over Darwin, England, pro- 
duced 2,035 cases of typhoid fever, including 104 deaths. 

In London, in 1848-9, a single well, though yielding apparently clear, refreshing 
water, caused the death of 500 persons by cholera in one week, the water being impreg- 
nated with decomposing sewage. 



CLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 



Fifty-six out of 74 pupils in a young- ladies' seminary at Pittsfield, Mass. , had typhoid 
and 16 died. Cause, pollution of air and water from vaults and cellars improperly drained. 

There are very numerous similar cases on record, and how many where the cause was 
never discovered? 

The reduction in death rate, wherever sanitary drainage is thoroughly adopted, proves 
its benefits beyond question. 



Results of Sanitary Drainage in Twelve English Towns. 



X.UIE OH PLACE. 



Bandburv . . 
Cardiff.:. 
Croydon . . 

Dover 

Ely . , 

Leicester . . 
Macclesfield 

Merthyr 

Newport. . . 

Rugby 

Salisbury. . 
Warwick. . 



10,238 

32.954 
30,229 
23,108 

7,847 
68,056 

27.475 
52,778 
24>756 
7,818 
9,030 
10,570 



23-4 
33-2 

23-7 
22.6 

'23-9 
26.4 
29.8 

33-2 
31.8 
19. 1 

27-5 
22.7 



20.5 
22.6 
18.6 
20.9 
20.5 
25.2 

23-7 
26.2 
21.6 
18.6 
21.9 
21.0 





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3 a 






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FT 
1 


3 $ 




re 


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B 2. 


12^ 


48 


32 . 


40 


22 


63 


7 


39 


H 


56 


A% 


48 


20 


48 


18 


60 


32 


36 


2^ 


10 


20 


75 


1% 


52 



41 
17 
17 

20 

47 
32 
31 
11 

32 
43 
49 
19 



MATERIAL. 



Stone, brick, cement, wood and vitrified clay pipe have all been tested for years, and 
the merits and demerits of each are now so well understood, that we think it safe to say 
that the vitrified pipe sewer is altogether preferable to any other known material, for such 
sizes as it can be obtained. 

Stone and brick are rough, as well as porous, and allow the poisonous liquids and 
gases to permeate the ground surrounding them, infecting contiguous wells and streams. 

Cement pipe is quickly disintegrated by the action of the acids and alkalies always 
found in sewers, and cannot be relied upon, as is clearly proven by a large number of 
letters written by the most prominent engineers in various parts of the United States, to 
the City Engineer of St. Louis, in response to his request for their views and experience 
as to the comparative value of cement and vitrified stone pipe. (We have these letters in 
printed form, and will send a copy to any one interested.) Wood is but short lived, and 
requires replacing every few years. 

A vitrified salt glazed pipe can never wear out, cannot be penetrated by acids or alka- 
lies, is not affected by frost, and is the smoothest material known for sewers, by reason of 
which the friction is reduced to a minimum, and the capacity thereby increased over stone 
or brick, from thirty to fifty per cent. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 



Comparative Cost of Cleaning Brick and Pipe Sewers 
in New York, from 1867 to 1871. 



j 


Brick Si WBR8 




I'M- 


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1,058,136 


13.073 




150,022 


50 


$12.5 


1868 


1,068,817 


19.358 


48,295 


222,020 


80 


200 


1869 


1,088,911 


11,002 


27.73° 


288,120 


200 


500 


1870 


1. 120.234 


18,548 


46,420 


335.313 


597 


1,442 


1871 


1. 152.054 


17.374 


43.435 


346,903 


502 


1.255 



[*roportioii of 
brick to pipe. 


Proportionate 

cost of clean- 
ing brick and 
pipe sewers 


7.05 to I 

4.81 to I 
3.78 to I 
3-34 to 1 
3.32 to 1 


261.46 to I 

241.48 to 1 

55.46 to I 

32. 18 to I 

34.61 to I 



The cost given in the schedule for pipe sewers includes the expense of repairs, the 
removal of broken pipes encountered, and relaying new ones. 

In all cases where the pipe sewers have required cleaning or repairs, their failure to 
work has been traced to error or unfaithfulness in their construction. 



SIZE 



The size of a sewer should be proportioned to the work it is expected to perform. 

A four-inch pipe, if well graded, will carry off all the rainfall — which is the measure 
of the largest demand upon it, of an ordinary city house and lot. A six-inch drain will 
serve the largest house. 



Old time sewers were built sufficiently large to be entered 
and cleaned out, almost regardless of the quantity they were 
expected to carry off; as it was taken as a matter of course 
they would frequently fill up with sediment from the flowing 
sewage, and so they did fill up in many cases, being built 
twice and three times as large as there was any necessity for. 
In such cases there is not only a useless expense in construc- 
tion, but the sewer will not begin to do the work as well as 
one of proper size. For example, suppose a stream four 
feet wide and two inches deep, on a slight grade the current 
would be very slow, and sediment would be deposited on the 
bottom of the sewer, perhaps finally choking it up. But con- 
tract the width to one foot, the current would then be eight 
inches deep, and the friction but one-fourth as much as be- 
fore, and the velocity of the stream increased so greatly as 
to sweep everything before it, and make the sewer self- 
cleansing. 




Cross section ot a 3x5 foot brick 
sewer, filled by the gradual accu- 
mulation of silt until only suffi- 
cient water-way is left for the 
smallest constant flow. 



12 GLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 

Sewers choke and overflow during heavy storms, mainly because they are too large 
for the work they are ordinarily called upon to perform. If a sewer is so small that its 
usual flow is concentrated to a sufficient depth to carry before it any ordinary obstruction, 
it will keep itself clean. But if, as is almost always the case where the engineer lacks 
experience or where he defers to the ignorance of the local authorities, it is so large that 
its ordinary flow is hardlv more than a film, with no power even to remove sand, we may 
be quite sure that its refuse solid matters will gradually accumulate until they leave near 
the crown of the arch only the space needed for the smallest constant stream. A smaller 
sewer would have been kept clear by its own flow. 

The passion tor too large sewers seems to be an almost universal one. The feeling 
is that it is best to make the conduit "big enough, anyhow," and as a result, nearly every 
drain that is laid, in town or country, is so much larger than is needful that the expense 
of keeping it clean is often the most serious item of cost connected with it. It cannot 
be too often reiterated that the great purpose of modern water sewerage is to remove 
immediately, and entirely beyond the occupied portions of a town, all manner of domestic 
waste and filth before it has time to enter into decomposition; thus preventing an accum- 
ulation of dangerous matter and obviating the necessity of employing men in the unwhole- 
some work of hand-cleaning cesspools and sewers of deposit, which all sewers are apt to 
become when materially too large for the work they have to perform. 

Again, too much allowance is frequently made for the accessions from lateral drains at 
various points between the beginning and outlet of the main sewer. It must be remem- 
bered that though a pipe may be full at the head, it may, by reason of increasing velocity 
of the stream, be but two-thirds full in the middle, and but half full at the mouth. Not 
only this, but these accessions, if by junctions at an obtuse angle, or Y, offer but little 
resistance, and are frequently found to increase the velocity, without swelling the sectional 
area. A right angle, or T junction, must necessarily offer more resistance; hence the Y 
should always be used when practicable. 

After draining the subsoil where necessary, with drain tile, and taking care of the sur- 
face water as far as practicable, by gutters, etc., what remains, together with the sewage 
from houses, must be estimated to decide upon the necessary size of the sewer to be con- 
structed. 

The sewage proper, of the city of London, is 29 gallons per head of population, in 24 
hours; Liverpool, 32 gallons, and the average of 120 English towns, 25 gallons. 

The London sewers are constructed to carry six cubic feet of sewage per head, and 
one inch of rain fall, in twenty-four hours. 

An allowance for eight cubic feet of sewage per head, and the estimated rainfall that 
must be provided for, at the rate of one inch per hour, is doubtless sufficient to cover 
variations. 

In making estimates, the following facts should be borne in mind: 

A smooth inner surface sewer offers much less resistance to the flow ol water, than 
a rough surface, and is much less liable to catch sediment or obstructions of an)' kind. 

The greater the inclination, the smaller the sewer need be. 

A large portion of the rainfall never reaches the drain, owing to evaporation, absorp- 
tion, and various obstructions, and it is considered safe to estimate that not more than 
two-thirds of a given rain can reach the sewer within the hour it falls. 



SAN FRANCISCO n n d LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 



INCLINATION. 

All sewers should have the greatest possible fall or inclination ; the greatei the incli- 
nation the greater the velocity. In order to prevent deposit in sewers it is necessary to 
provide a certain velocity in t hi' flow of sewage, which must be secured throughout the 

whole system of sewers, and such velocity must be sufficient to prevent the subsidence 
from the liquid of any matters in suspension, and also to move along the bed of the chan- 
nel any solid deposits. 

In order to prevent deposits in sewers, the following velocities should be maintained: 

For sewers of six to ten inches in diameter, a velocity of at least three feet per second 
is required. 

■ r> twelve to twenty-four inches in diameter require a velocity of two and a half 
feet per second; and in sewers of larger dimensions, in no case should the velocity be less 
than two feet per second. 

"The minimum velocity of two feet per second should be exceeded wherever pos- 
sible." 

"There is a limit in the other direction which has not yet been determined. It is 
well recognized among sewerage engineers that the fall of a sewer may be too steep — that 
is, that it may cause the flow to be drawn out to a thread of a stream so small as to lack 
depth and force, in spite of its velocity, to carry solid matters along." 

The following valuable table will assist in making: calculations: 

Inclination of Circular Sewers. 

I-'OK VKLOCITIBS FROM TWO TO FOUR FEET PER SECOND, RUNNING Fl I.I. OK HALF HI 1. 1.. 



ihami-.tkr in 
Inches. 

3 

4 

s 

6 

8 

IO 

12 

'4 

16 

:8 

20 

22 

24 



Velocity, 2 feet Velocity, 2.5 feet 
per Second. per Second. 



1 in 145 
" '94 



243 
292 

389 
486 

583 
685 

777 

875 

972 

1069 

1 166 



129 
160 
193 
257 
322 
386 
452 
5i3 
579 
643 
70S 
772 



Velocity, 3 feet 
per Second. 



Velocity, 3.5 feet 
per Second. 



i in 68 

" 92 

" 115 

" 137 

" 183 

" 229 

" 275 

" 322 

" 366 

" 412 

" 458 

' 504 

" 55° 



5i 
68 

85 
102 

'37 
171 
205 
241 
273 
3°7 
342 
376 
410 



Velocity, 4 feet 
per Second. 



1 in 39 

" 53 

" 66 

" 80 

" 106 

" 133 

" '59 

" 187 

" 212 

" 239 

" 265 

" 292 

" 318 



FLUSHING 



No system of sewerage that is not kept clean by its own flow, or by daily flushing, 
can satisfy even moderate sanitary requirements. To depend on the occasional flushing 
of infrequent rains is not sufficient. It is often possible to pond sewerage in large flush- 
tanks in sufficient volume, to give a good cleansing to main sewers. 



14 CLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 

The Requirements of a Good Sewer. 

1. It must be perfectly tight from one end to the other, so that all matters entering it 
shall surely be carried to its outlet, not a particle of impurity leaking through into the soil. 

2. It must have a continuous fall from the head to the outlet, in order that its con- 
tents may " keep moving," so that there shall be no halting to putrify by the way, and no 
depositing of silt that would endanger the channel. 

3. It must be perfectly ventilated, so that the poisonous gases that necessarily arise, 
even when decomposing matters are being carried along in water, shall be diluted with 
fresh air, and shall have such means of escape as will prevent them from forcing their way 
into houses through the traps in the house-drains. 

4. It must be provided with means for inspection and flushing. 

5. The branches by which it receives its supply should be so regulated as to admit 
nothing that will be liable to choke up the channel. 

6. There must be some device to prevent the gases of the sewer from rising through 
the house-drains or through the street basins. 

Water Consumed in Cities and Towns. 

According to the report of various cities for 1S82, the following was the number of 
gallons used per capita per diem in each : 

Boston 99 gallons to each individual daily. 

Chicago 114 " " 

Detroit 149 " " 

Philadelphia 66 " " 

New York 79 " " 

Washington 176 " " 

Mr. Fanning, authority upon water supply, gives the following as the approximate 
consumption of water in American cities: 

a. For ordinary domestic use (not including hose), twenty gallons per capita per day. 

b. For private stables, including carriage washing, when reckoned on the basis of 
inhabitants, three gallons per capita per day. 

c. For commercial and manufacturing purposes. 5 to 15 gallons per capita per day. 

d. For fountains — drinking and ornamental — three to ten gallons per capita per day. 

e. For fire purposes, one to ten gallons per capita per day. 

f. For private hose, sprinkling streets and yards, ten gallons per capita per day 
during the four driest months of the 5'ear. 

%. Waste, to prevent freezing of water in service pipes, and house fixtures in North- 
ern cities, ten gallons per capita per day during the three coldest months of the year. 

h. Waste by leakage of pipes and fixtures and use for flushing purposes, from five 
■ gallons per capita per day upward. 

Finally, Mr. Fanning gives the following as the approximate estimate of the average 
daily consumption, basing his calculations entirely upon the population: 

Places of 10,000 population, 35 to 45 gallons per capita. 

Places of 20,000 population, 40 to 50 gallons per capita. 

Places of 30,000 population, 45 to 65 gallons per capita. 

Places of 50,000 population, 55 to 75 gallons per capita. 

Places of 75,000 and upwards, 60 to 100 gallons per capita. 

This estimate corresponds,with the estimates made by other authorities on the subject 
of water supply. It will be seen from this, that, while an average of fifty gallons per capita 
per day is the requirement of a water supply, only twenty gallons per capita per day are 
required for the ordinary domestic purposes. The other thirty gallons may be regarded 
as necessary to supply the demands of luxury or business necessity. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 



The Discharging Capacity of Circular Sewers 
at Various Inclinations. 



IN CI UK P8BT PER MINUTE, 
(There are 7.4S ,i gallons in :i cubic faoL) 






-' ■ 
20 in. 


Si ■ 
22 in, 


24 in, 



























I in 1000. or >', 



1 1 

104;, 
997 
958 
924 
892 
86} 
836 
813 
792 
77° 
686 
477 
38s 
327 



1357 
i 24 1 

11U1 

1147 

1 109 

117^ 
1043 
1012 
98} 
958 
854 
593 
477 
in- 



A Legal Inch of Water, 

At present in California, is the water discharged through an opening one inch square, 
under a pressure of four inches from the center of the orifice to the top of the water above 
such orifice, and with a free discharge below. The water flowing through such an orifice 
is equivalent to 0.02 of a cubic foot per second; 1.20 cubic feet per minute; 72 cubic feet 
per hour, or 1,728 cubic feet per 24 hours, which in water measurement is called one day. 
To reduce this to gallons multiply by 7.48, which gives 0.1496 gallons per second, 8.976 
gallons per minute, 538.56 gallons per hour, or 12,925.44 gallons per day of 24 hours. 
As all water measures are first figured in cubic feet per second, and then reduced to legal 
miner's inches, it is convenient to know that one cubic foot per second equals fifty legal 
miner's inches. 

A Miner's Inch of Water 

Is a very indefinite term, and has caused many disputes, as different localities have adopted 
different heights from the center of orifice to the top of the water, varying from three to 
eight inches. The great hydraulic companies, however, have agreed upon a six -inch 
pressure, which gives by actual measurement, as made by Hamilton Smith, at the North 
Bloomfield, 2260.6 cubic feet per twenty-four hours, or 94 2 cubic feet per hour. In 
reducing to inches the water stored in reservoirs, the practice is to allow 100 cubic feet per 
hour. For irrigating heads the pressure runs all the way from three to eight inches among 
commercial ditches. The latter is, or was recently, in use by the National Canal Com- 
pany, Sacramento county. That company measures through an orifice four inches deep, 
with six inches additional to overflow. In regard to the measuring box, the practice is 
quite uniform. It should be so large that the inflow will not create a perceptible current or 
commotion. The opening is usually two inches in depth ; its length being regulated by a 
tight-fitting slide, each half-inch being equivalent to an inch of water. The edges are 
smooth, and if necessary are chamfered on the outside. This system of measurement was 
first introduced in California by a Mr. John Dunn in January, 185 1. 



GLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 



Directions for Laying Setter Pipe. 



Excavation and Inclination.— Commence at the lower end or outlet of the pro- 
posed drain or sewer, and make the trench of uniform, gradual and continuous inclination, 
and as great as attainable. 

By distributing the whole available fall over the total length of the drain a much bet- 
ter grade will be secured. A fall of not less than i in 40 to 1 in 60 is desirable for pipes 
of 4 to 6 inches in diameter, and greater if attainable. A grade of 1 in 100 is the least 
that should be given to small house drains, in order to make them self-cleansing. Larger 
pipes require less inclination. After bringing the bottom of the trench to a true, uniform 
grade, cut out special grooves or depressions for the sockets. For the larger sizes of 
pipe, say all over 8 inches in diameter, excavate a very narrow trench in the middle of the 
ditch about 6 inches wide, and 3 to 4 inches deep, so that the body of the pipe will rest 
firmly on the ground. This pipe will sustain the greatest amount of vertical pressure 
when it has a firm and uniform bearing at every point in' its lower surface. 

Mode of Laying.— Commence laying the pipe at the outlet with the sockets all 
facing up grade, fair and true to line, and upon foundations of assured stability. Do not 
lay boards in the bottom of the trench, on which to lay the pipe. The ends of each length 
of pipe should abut squarely and truly against the adjoining pieces, so as to present an 
absolute continuity and uniformity in the interior of the drain, particularly at the bottom 
line. The annular space between the spigot and socket ends of the pipe should be com- 
pletely filled with hydraulic cement mortar, paying particular attention to the bottom part 
of the joint, where the mortar should be pressed into it with the fingers. 

Cement Mortar.— A cement mortar, good enough for all ordinary use, can be made 
of one part hydraulic cement (Portland is the best), two parts of clean, sharp sand, free 
from loam or soil, and fresh made, as wanted for the work on hand. The mortar should 
be used immediately after being mixed, and not allowed to stand upon the mortar boards 
until it has set, and then be broken down, re-mixed or re-tempered, so-called. Never 
use any lime in the mixture. 

Cleaning Pipe.— As the work progresses and each length of pipe is permanently 
fixed in place, the interior should be thoroughly cleansed and wiped out, and all project- 
ing mortar or other substance carefully removed, so that the internal area of the drain will 
be left absolutely unobstructed, smooth and clean throughout its entire length, as otherwise 
the rough projecting points of mortar, when hardened, might catch any waste matter pass- 
ing through the pipe, and gradually obstruct its discharge. On looking into one end of 
a drain, a small circular light should be seen at the other end, and if this light is not 
perfectly circular, it is a sure sign that the pipes have not been properly laid. 

Filling. —As fast as the filling is deposited in the trench (sand or fine dirt first), it 
should be thoroughly puddled and tamped, especially under and around the lower half of 
the pipe, and to such an extent as to render the subsequent settlement of the surface prac- 
tically impossible. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 



Ventilation of Sewers. 



A Bl 

H Bidewalk. 

;• I.. i .vn. 

I' Hona s. n ex <>r Drain. 

(i Hand Holo Trap. 

H Fresli nir inlet. 

K Y Branch. 

L Ventilation and Soil Pipe. 



i. H . Ci 






Mm (ERN \ it >l >K 

Ventilating 
HOUSE DRAINS. 







EZ3 



Sewers should be ventilated to prevent an accumulation of sewer gas, which is liable 
to be forced into the houses by drafts of wind or other causes, if precautions are not taken 
to prevent it. 

For ventilating large street sewers, openings carried to the surface at intervals, are 
probably the best thing yet devised. 

For ventilating house drains or sewers, a pipe connecting with the sewer, and carried 
up through and above the highest point of the roof, with a fresh air inlet between the 
house and trap will obviate all danger. 

As parties have objected to the running trap, and cold air vent, on the line of the 
main drain, and in some cases have closed up the latter, imagining that injurious effects 
would result from having them in front of their houses, it would perhaps be well to say 
something about the advantages to be derived from these modern appliances and the 
reasons for their adoption. 

In order to effect a constant movement and change of air in the pipes, two openings 
are required, an outlet and an inlet. The extension of the soil pipe through the roof, 
affords an escape of the foul air generated in the sewer, by the decomposition of foul organic 
matter clinging to the inner surface of the pipes. In order to render harmless this matter 
undergoing putrefaction a constant introduction of pure air from the outside is absolutely 
necessary, and as the soil pipe is warmer (being in the house) than the fresh air pipe, 
located near the ground in front, the result is an almost constant upward current in the 
soil pipe. 

This has been found to be the case even with the soil pipe on the outside of the house, 
for the reason that it is heated more by the sun, than the fresh air pipe near the ground. 

Most persons are familiar with the running trap, which is practically a bend in the 
drain, holding a sufficient quantity of water to prevent the passage of air or sewer gas from 
the street sewer to the house drain. This, in conjunction with the cold air vent, gives 
perfect security against the public sewer. 

" What is known under the general term 'sewer gas,' is the emanation from waste mat- 
ters undergoing decomposition in the absence of free air and light and in the presence ol 
water, whether in a sewer, house drain, cesspool, vault, or a foul, wet and unventilated 
cellar. It frequently exists in the case of a detached country house, and is never absent 
from a town sewer, though it is possible in the case of these, by perfect ventilation, greatly 
to lessen its production, and so to dilute it as to prevent its doing serious harm." 



GLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 



Intermittent Flush -Tanks. 



Introduction. 

With the construction of separate sewerage systems in this country, beginning with 
Memphis about ten years ago, and the invention by Rogers Field of an automatic siphon 
having no moving parts, a new era in sewer building was introduced. 

A radiating system of underground conduits, built mainly of smooth clay pipes, their 
upper extremities flushed at regular and frequent intervals, has afforded an object lesson 
in sanitary practice, so nearly approaching perfection, that the adaptive mind of American 
engineers has been quick to extend it to the whole field of sewer building. 

At first, automatic flush-tanks were looked upon as scarcely more than ingenious toys, 
or at best, as contrivances, which, though of theoretical beauty, were of doubtful practical 
value. Now their utility is so well established, that no progressive engineer thinks of 
designing a separate system, or partly separate system of sewers, without their liberal use: 
while some are using them upon combined systems. That they have not been used more 
generally upon combined systems, is largely due to the fact that until within the last few 
months, no siphon operated by a very small stream of water and discharging a sufficient 
volume to flush large sized pipes has been upon the market, and partly to the fact that in 
some places the officers in charge of sewers object to the use of the necessary amount of 
water. We are now enabled to furnish flush-tanks of any size which will discharge, with 
a certainty and rapidity proportioned to their capacity however small the stream of water 
supplying them, thus making it possible by the most economical use of water to flush even 
brick sewers several feet in diameter. 

Col. Geo. E. Waring, Jr., in his work on " Sewage and Land Drainage," says: " It 
is first of all important to maintain, at least for a short time each day through every por- 
tion of the sewerage system, a living strpam of sufficient depth and velocity to remove 
objects which sewers are constructed to receive, and which would be stranded if introduced 
with too small a volume of water to keep them moving; or deposited if the stream is too 
sluggish. Objects so stranded, whatever their character, are liable to become sources of 
local accumulation, not necessarily nor generally to the extent of constituting a positive 
obstruction of the sewer, but sufficient to establish a seat of decomposition and to give rise 
to the foetid cesspool odor, sewer gas, which should be considered inadmissible." 

There is no practicable way to fulfill these conditions but by the use of flush-tanks. 
In all parts of the United States rains are so infrequent during some parts of the year that 
even if roof water is freely admitted to the sewers it will not suffice to keep them in a san- 
itary condition. The deposits made in sewers where street water is admitted are more 
difficult to remove than any other kind of obstruction, and where such sewers have slight 
grades they become exceedingly filthy by the combined deposits from house and street. 
The occasional flushing which they receive in some cities serves at best to prevent them 
from becoming entirely clogged, the improvement of their sanitary condition being of the 
most temporary nature. The only permanent remedy for such evils is frequent flushing 
at regular intervals, which can alone be secured successfully by the use of automatic flush- 
tanks. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 



FIELD-WARING FLUSH-TANK. 







The siphon invented and patented by Rogers Field and improved by Col. George E. 
Waring, Jr., consists (in the form shown) of an annular intaking limb, and a discharging 
limb at the top of which is an annular lip or mouth-piece, the bottom of which is tapered 
to less diameter. The discharging limb terminates in a weir chamber which when full to 
its overflow point just seals the limb. Over the crest of the weir is a small siphon whose 
function is to draw the water from the weir chamber and thus unseal the siphon. At the 
lower end of the small siphon is a dam or obstruction to prevent its breaking. The main 
siphon is brought into action (on the tank being filled) by means of a small stream of water 
flowing over the annular mouth-piece and falling free ot the sides of the discharging limb. 
As soon as the lower end of the discharging limb has been sealed by filling the weir chamber 
the falling stream of water gathers up and carries out with it a portion of the contained air, 
thus producing a slight rarefaction. This rarefaction causes the water to rise in the intak- 
ing limb higher than in the basin outside, and hence increases the stream of water flowing 
over the mouth-piece, which in turn increases the rarefaction, and the siphon is soon 
brought into full play. 

On the tank being emptied to the bottom of the intaking limb the flow is checked, 
and the small siphon over the crest of the weir draws the water from the weir chamber, air 
enters the discharging limb, and the siphon is vented ready for the tank to again fill. 

Table of Dimensions, with Prices of Field-Waring Siphons. 



Diameter of Discharging Limb. 



i,y 2 inches 
6 inches 



Diameter of Sewer. 



6 inches. 

S inches. 



Price of Siphons 

$40 00 
50 00 



GLADDING, M c B E A N &. COMPANY, 



RHOADES -WILLIAMS FLUSH -TANK. 




.,-. ■- 



The Rhoades- Williams siphon as illustrated, consists of an annular intaking limb, and' 
a discharging limb terminating in a deep trap below the level of the sewer. Below the 
permanent water line in the discharging limb, is connected one end of a small blow-oft" or 
relief-trap, having a less depth of seal than the main trap, the other end of which joins the 
main trap on the opposite side, at its entrance to the sewer and above the water line of the 
trap. At the same point is connected an upright vent pipe which rises through the tank 
to a point above the high water line, and is turned down through the top of, and into the 
intaking limb of the siphon, terminating at a given point above its bottom. 

As the tank fills with water (the main and blow-off traps being full), it rises in the 
intaking limb even with the level of the water in the tank until reaching the end of the 
vent pipe, a volume of air is confined in the two limbs of the siphon between the water in 
the intaking limb and the water in the main trap. As the water rises higher in the tank 
the confined volume of air is compressed, and the water is depressed in the main trap and 
in the blow-off trap. This process goes on until the \vater in the tank reaches its highest 
level above the top of the intaking limb, at which time the water is depressed in the blow- 
off trap to the lowest point and the confined air breaks through the seal, carrying the 
w-ater with it out of the trap, thus releasing the confined air and allowing an inflow from 
the tank, putting the siphon into operation. 

On the tank being discharged to the bottom of the intaking limb, the flow is checked, 
and the siphon is vented by the admission of air to it through the vent pipe. 

The blow-off trap connects with the discharging limb by means of a perforated brass 
strainer projecting slightly on the interior of the siphon where it is thoroughly washed by 
the current, thus preventing any possible obstruction of the same. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 



Price and Capacity of Tanks. 

In the following table will be found the size and price of standard siphons made 1>\ us 
under the Rhoades and Willi. mis patents, the size of sewer which they will llu-.li under 
normal conditions, the amount of water necessary to till about 100 lineal Feet ol sewer of 
the given si/'-, and the diameter and discharging capacity ol circular tanks using siphons 
nt standard length. With a given sized siphon the tank itself may be made of any diam- 

, and on special order being given, the depth of water discharged by the tank may be 
increased to any extent. The depth of discharge may be diminished by lengthening the 
small vent pipe inside the annular intaking limb of the siphon, provided that it is not 
extended nearer than about I ' _• inches of the bottom of the limb. 

Where the depth of the sewer to be flushed will admit of it. the rate of discharge may 
be increased materially by lengthening the siphon, and a given sized siphon may be made 
adequate for a sewer of greater diameter than the corresponding diameter in the table, and 
the amount of water discharged may be increased without increasing the size of the tank. 
Siphons of larger size than those listed will be made on special order. 

Where rock, or troublesome quicksand generally prevails, rendering it important that 
no portion of the siphon should be set lower than the sewer, we can on special order furnish 
siphons no part of which will be placed lower than the sewer. 



Table of Dimensions, with Prices of Rhoades-Williams Siphons. 



Diameter of 




Size and capacity of Tanks, with 




Diameter of 


Siphons 


of Standard Length. 


Discharging 










Limb. 


Sewer. 


Diameter. 


Discharging 


Discharging 




Inches. 




Depth. 


Capacity. 


[nches. 




Feet 
4 


Inches. 
26 


Cubic Feet, 


5 


6 


27 


6 


8 


4^ 


31 


40 


S 


IO 


5 


36 


59 


IO 


12 


6 


36 


85 



Water 


Price for 


Price for each 


required to fill 

100 I.iueal 
Feet of Sewer. 


Siphons of 

Standard 


Additional Fool 

111 Length of 
Siphon or part 


Cubic F'eet. 


Length. 


thereof. 


20 


$40 OO 


$ 5 00 


35 


50 OO 


6 00 


55 


75 00 


8 00 


79 


IOO OO 


10 00 



Directions for Building Flush-Tanks. 

The discharging limb of each siphon should be set in a vertical position, and the earth 
and concrete thoroughly consolidated about the siphon. In building the basin great care 
should be exercised to make it water tight, by being thoroughly plastered on the inside. 
Nothing but the best hydraulic cement (Portland if possible) should be used. The feed 
should be brought into the tank at sufficient depth below the ground to keep it from 
freezing and it should be turned up free of the wall inside the tank. It is best to provide 
a small pet cock for the regular supply, and a large cock for special use, by which to fill 
the tank rapidly. Tanks should be provided with a tight fitting cover, and should be 
connected with the sewer above the water line to keep them from freezing. 

This upper connection with the sewer should be put in full size of sewer in such man- 
ner as to answer for inspection purposes. 



We are the Sole Agents on the Pacific Coast for these Flush-Tank Siphons. 

Gladding, McBean & Co. 



GLADDING, M c B E A N & COMPANY, 



Vitrified Salt Glazed 



IWHTRPB 



We manufacture this pipe expressly for the purpose of conducting' water, where 
the pressure is not greater than a head of twenty- five feet. It has come into exten- 
sive use for that purpose within the past few years, and in a great measure is taking 
the place of iron pipe, on account of its non - liability to corrode, or be affected by 
alkali or mineral waters. 

The pipe is made in two - foot lengths, with sockets, and out of the best prepared 
stone-ware clay, and pressed into shape by powerful machinery. The pipe is made very 
compact, and is thoroughly vitrified by being fired at a high temperature. 

In laying this pipe the ends of each length must abut squarely and truly against the 
adjoining pieces, so that the annular space between the spigot and socket ends of the 
pipe will be the same at all parts of its circle. 

This annular space must be completely and thoroughly filled with a mortar made of 
the best English Portland cement, and clean, sharp sand (free from loam or pebbles), 
mixed in equal parts, and used as soon as mixed. From eight to ten days' time should 
be allowed lor the cement to thoroughly harden before the pipe is covered or water 
is allowed to pass through it. 

Water should not be turned off at the outlet, but at the inlet or point of supply. 

Place on the line of pipe a stand pipe, with a removable cap, so that it can be used, 
when desired, as an air escape. 

If the above directions are strictly adhered to, the Pipe will stand a pressure or head 
of twenty-five feet. 

XOTICK.— See fuller directions for laying pipe on page 16. 

Price List of Water Pipe. 



Caliber of 
Pipe. 



Price of Pipe Branches. Curves and 

per Foot. I Kach. Elbows, Each. 



3 inch $0 

4 inch 

5 inch 

6 inch 

8 inch 

10 inch 

12 inch 

14 inch ' 1 

16 inch 1 

iS inch 1 

20 inch t 

22 inch 2 

24 inch 2 



15 
20 
25 
3° 
4° 
60 

75 
00 

25 
5° 
75 
10 

50 



$0 60 
80 
00 
20 
60 
40 
00 
00 



5 00 

6 00 

7 00 

8 40 
10 00 



&o 50 
60 

75 
1 00 

1 50 

2 10 

2 75 

3 75 

4 25 

4 75 

5 75 

7 00 

8 00 



Reducers or Weight of Pipe 
Increasers. I per Foot. 



$0 60 

75 

90 

1 20 

I 80 

2 25 

3 00 

3 75 

4 50 

5 25 

6 30 

7 5° 



ey 2 lbs. 

9 lbs. 



1.3 
16 
22 
3i 
4i 
50 
66 
80 
90 
105 
120 



lbs. 
lbs. 
lbs. 
lbs. 
lbs. 
lbs. 
lbs. 
lbs. 
lbs. 
lbs. 
lbs. 



Feet to Carload 
of 10 Tons. 



3000 
2200 

1540 
1250 
9OO 
65O 
49O 
4OO 
300 
250 
,220 
190 
170 



Special Prices Quoted on Carload Lots 
See Tables on Pages 14 and 15. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 



23 



Well Tubing. 



Poi Priei i m i- P«g< - I ""i ' 

Within the past few years Vitrified Pipes have come into very 
general use for tubing bored wells, ami they arc certainly the cleanest 
and most durable materials ever used for that purpose. Where there is 
no stone to obstruct the boring, wells can be easily and cheaply made, 
with augers similar to post augers, constructed for the purpose, and such 
wells, when lined with this stone-ware tubing, are superior to any others 
in point of cleanliness and durability. 

For this use the sections are sometimes made without sockets, so as 
to tit the hole more closely, but the regular socket joint is by far the best, 
as this makes a more solid joint, each piece fitting accurately into the end 
of the next, thus forming a continuous tube, leaving no crevice for the 
dirt to fall in, doing away with the necessity of cleaning the well. Ver- 
min cannot crawl through the joints and fall in; hence, sweet, pure water 
is the result. 



Without 
Sockets. 






Dug wells are curbed with the larger sizes and are far superior to a curbing of brick 
or stone, especially in sandy ground, where common wells are easily made, and when 
made are constantly filling up with quicksand; but with these pipes a well can be put 
down with ease, even in a bank of quicksand. This is best done by a man getting inside 
the pipe, and as he throws out the sand the pipes settle down by their own weight. When 
the first pipe gets below the surface put on another, and so continue to do until the re- 
quired depth is reached. 

I >ur second-class pipe is well adapted for this purpose. 



Culoert Pipe. 

(For Prices see Pages ,s and 7.) 

Stone-ware pipes are extensively used for railroad culverts, and have been for the last 
twenty years, and we desire to call the attention of county road commissioners, supervisors 
and overseers of common wagon roads throughout the country, to the use of these pipes for 
Culverts across common roads, in place of all small plank bridges and box culverts, so 
common in country roads, and which are constantly getting out of repair, and last at most 
but a few years; whereas, a stone- ware pipe culvert will last for ages without any repairs 
whatever, if well put in, and will prove cheapest in the long run, as well as best. 

The construction of a pipe culvert is a very simple matter, but should nevertheless be 
done with care If 'the top of the pipe, when laid, is less than two feet below the surface 



GLADDING. M c B E A N & COMPANY. 



of the road-bed, first cover the pipes with dirt to the depth of a few inches and level it off, 
then place a few poles, fence rails or planks over the pipes lengthwise, and throw on more 
dirt and grade up to the level of the road-bed. The rails or poles will serve to equalize 
the pressure on the pipes when the wheels of heavy wagons pass over them; but if the dirt 
is two feet deep or more no other protection is necessary. The ends of the culvert should 
be protected by small abutments of stone or plank (as shown), otherwise the end pipes 
would be liable to be undermined by the action of the water, or displaced by thirsty hogs 
in search of water to drink or wallow in. The size of pipe required in each particular case 
depends of course upon the amount of water to be provided for, and this depends upon the 
area of ground from which the rainfall runs to the culvert. This area can generally be es- 
timated with sufficient accuracy, by careful observation, without surveying instruments, 
and the size required can then be determined by reference to tables on the previous 
pages. When there is any doubt as to the proper size it is better, of course, to put in 
one larger than is necessary rather than too small. 

We have had few calls for pipes as small as six inches for this purpose, but the sizes 
most used range from 8 to 18 inches for turnpikes, wagon roads, plantation culverts and 
street crossings, and from 12 to 24 inches for railroads. Our second-class pipe is well 
adapted for this purpose. 

Fig. 12. Fig. 13. 





Figure 12 shows the end of a pipe culvert, protected by a small abutment of stone or 
brick. The foundation should of course extend far enough down into the ground to be 
below the influence of frost, as otherwise the alternate heaving and settling might throw 
the end pipe out of position. When stone or brick abutments are too expensive, a good 
and cheap substitute can be made of planks, by setting them on end, deep enough in the 
ground to hold them in place, and fitting them closely about the pipe; or still better by 
setting a post each side of the pipe (see Fig. 13), and by spiking the planks on hori- 
zontally, as represented above. 

When planks or posts are used it is best to set them with considerable inclination 
toward the road-bed to prevent the pressure of the embankment from crowding the 
planks outward. 

Orders promptly attended to, and shipments made to all points accessible by water 
or railroad. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Your attention is called to our Vitrified Tile, which arc extensively used on this 
for the Drainage or Sub-Irrigation of lands. 

i >ur Tile are manufactured without sockets or collars, in one foot lengths, and arc- 
laid in the trench with their ends joined as closely as possible. If to be used for 
Drainage, the water will enter where the ends of the tile meet, and if for Irrigation, it 
will escape at the same points. 

We take it for granted that a tew suggestions as to the form and quality of tile best 
suited to the purpose may not be out of place. First as to form — the round tiles are un- 
doubtedly the best, because they can be laid any side up, and thus a close joint can be 
secured with much less trouble than with flat bottom or horse shoe tile, especially it a little 
out of shape. It is ii' it well to use those which have been drawn out of shape by excessive 
heat in burning. 

As to quality, tile should be made of good fire-clay, and hard burned — the more like 
stone-ware the better. Such tile are of unusual strength, which materially reduces the 
breakage and expense of transportation. 

Too much stress cannot be laid upon the importance of using hard burnt lilt- only, 
as the failure of a single tile may work extensive mischief. 

Tile should be smooth on the inside, as the friction will be less. 

The old-fashioned notion that drain tile should be porous in order to absorb the water 
was an error. The water enters the drain at the joints, ami nowhere else to any appreci- 
able extent. 

The tile made of common brick clay at various places throughout the country, is a 
good deal better than nothing; but when good, solid, hard-burned tile made of fire-clay, 
can be obtained at about the same price, it is a great mistake to use the soft porous tile. 
The farmer cannot afford to use inferior tile; he wants only what is reliable, and will be 
of permanent value. 

WE CLAIM ALL THE ABOVE ADVANTAGES FOR OUR TILE. 



Practical Suggestions for the Laying of Tile Drains. 

In the beginning of drainage the work should be carefully laid out, the inclination 
marked on grade stakes, and the whole should be platted and carefully preserved for 
future reference. If it is not possible to complete the work soon, let it be so done as to 
look forward to the time when it shall be completed. 

In laying a tile drain, it is well to strictly adhere to the following rules : 

1. The drain should have a sufficient outlet for the discharge of all the water that 
may pass through it. 

2. The drain should be deep enough to drain the widest space possible — from three 
to lour feet — and deeper, if necessary to get the water out by a much shorter line: but 
drain any way, even if you cannot get an outlet to drain so deep. 



CLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 



3. The bottom of the drain should be one regular line of descent, so that the current 
may have a smooth flow from the head to the mouth of the drain. 

4. Every tile should be perfect in form and well burned, having a clear metallic ring. 
, 5. In laying the tile, take pains to fit the joints closely, as with all care there will be 

sufficient space for the inlet of the water, and close joints will prevent the letting in of silt 
or washings. 

6. At the junction of drains the water should be brought together, flowing as nearly 
as possible in the same direction, so that the flow of the current may not be obstructed. 

7. Place a coarse sieve, or something of that kind, across the outlet, to prevent rats 
or snakes from crawling in. 

8. The size of the tile may be pretty accurately determined by the amount of surface 
to be drained and the descent of the drain, by reference to the tables on page 28. 

9. At the point where the work ceases for the time, secure and note the same, that 
the work may be readily taken up at any future time. 

10. If the drains be laid at a distance of 40 feet apart, 1,060 feet of tile are required 
to lay one acre ; if at a distance of 50 feet apart, 860 feet will be required, and at a distance 
of 60 feet apart, 750 feet. 

11. Smaller tile than three inches in diameter should not be used, and drains con- 
structed with tile of that size should not exceed one thousand feet in length. 

The Effects of Drainage. 




Drought. 

Drought. — " It is often asked, ' If draining makes a soil dry in a wet year will it 
not make it too dry in a dry time?' It has been shown that a drained soil holds a large 
quantity of moisture by absorption. The soil being very much deepened, the roots of 
plants have access to the moisture contained in a much larger mass of soil than when un- 
drained. Again, a soil is filled with capillary tubes, which carry moisture to the surface, 
where it is quickly converted into vapor. If the surface is mellow and the whole depth of 
soil loose, the tubes are much larger, so that water is conveyed to the surface in much less 
quantities. Consequently less moisture is lost by evaporation. Still further, in dry times 
the soil below the surface is much cooler than the air, hence, when air containing vapor is 
brought in contact with it, the vapor is condensed into water and absorbed by the particles 
of soil. In an undrained soil the surface is made compact by standing water, is baked by 
the sun when the water is evaporated, is compact below, giving little depth of soil for the 
plants. Moisture evaporates rapidly through the hard surface, and roots, having a com- 
paratively small range, soon feel the ill effects of dry weather. Some soils are naturally 
very rich and porous, producing good crops when the spring rains are light enough to 
allow the soil to be worked, but it has been found that such soil produces much larger 
crops even in dry times when well drained. In short, thorough under-draining has been 
found to be a most efficient preventive of drought. It also makes a better tillage possible, 
which in itself is a great advantage, and it makes all parts of the soil available for the use 
of useful crops." 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 



27 



Ten Reasons why Farmers should use Drain Tile. 



Thorough drainage deepens the soil. 

Allows pulverization. 

Prevents surface washing. 

Lengthens the season for labor and vegetation. 

Prevents drought. 

Warms the soil. 

Supplies air to the roots. 

Promotes absorption of fertilizing substance from the air. 

Improves the quality of crops. 

Increases production. 



If you contemplate drainage, write to us for a copy of C. G. Elliott's work on " Practical Farm 
Drainage. M 



Drain Tile and Fittings. 






Price List. 



Tnside Diameter 


I'rice of Tile 


Price of 


Price of 


Price of Re- 


Weight of Tile, 


Feet to Carload 


of Tile. 


per i ,ooo feet. 


Branch's, each. 


Curves, each. 

Jo 25 


ducers, each. 


per Foot. 

2^ lbs. 


of 10 tons. 


2 inch 


$25 °° 


$0 25 


$0 25 


8,000 


3 inch 


30 OO 


35 


35 


35 


i% lbs. 


5,750 


4 inch 


40 OO 


40 


40 


40 


5 y 2 lbs. 


3.630 




60 00 


50 


50 


50 


8 lbs. 


2,500 


6 inch 


go 00 


60 


60 


60 


10 lbs. 


2,000 


8 inch 


150 00 


75 


75 


75 


18 lbs. 


I, IOO 


io inch 


250 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


21 lbs. 


950 


12 inch 


300 00 


' 25 


1 25 


1 25 


29 lbs. 


7OO 



Special prices quoted on carload lots shipped from Lincoln to any part of the Coast. 
Tile ordered by the carload will be subject not only to a special price, but a special 
rate of freight as well. 

See valuable tables on the next page. 



CLADDINC, 



McBEAN & COMPANY, 



Capacity of Drain Tile. 

The following table ma)' be found convenient for reference by those who are consider- 
ing the subject of drainage: 

Number of Acres which Tiles, of the following Sizes and Inclinations will 

Drain, when the Rainfall does not exceed Half an Inch in 

Twenty-four Hours. 



INCLINATION. 



foot m 10 feet 

20 

25 

3° 

40 

50 

60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

150 

200 

250 

300 

400 

500 

600 

800 

1,000 

1,500 

2,000 



2 Inch 


3 Inch 


4 Inch 


5 Inch 


6 Inch 


slnch 


10 Inch 


j 2 Inch 


Tile. 


Tile. 


Tile. 


Tile. 


Tile. 


Tile. 


Tile. 


Tile. 


6.6 


18.9 

1 3- 

II. 4 

IO.9 

9.4 












4-7 

4-2 

3-9 
3-4 


26 8 


47.2 

44-4 

41.2 
36.I 










24- 

2I.9 

19. 


66.2 








61.5 

53-3 


126.4 

109 6 






I9O.5 




3- 


8.4 


17- 


30-4 


47-7 


98. 


I7O.4 


269. 


2.7 


7.6 


15-6 


29. I 


43-4 


90. 


■56. 


246. 


2-5 


6.9 


H-5 


26.5 


39-9 


»3- 


I44.4 


228. I 


2-3 


6-5 


13-4 


23.6 


37-2 


77- 


135. 


213. 


2.2 


6.1 


12.6 


23.I 


35- 


72.5 


I27. 


2OO.5 


2. 


5-7 


11. 9 


21.2 


33-i 


69.2 


I20.6 


190.5 


1.6 


4-5 


9-5 


19.2 


26.6 


56. 


97-3 


154-4 




3-9 


8.2 


15-2 


22.8 


48. 


33-9 


132-5 




3-5 


7-5 


13-4 


20.4 


43-4 


74-4 


117. 






6.9 
5-9 
5-3 




I8.4 
16.5 
I4.8 


38.2 
34-6 
30.1 


65-5 
60.3 

54- 


107. 
90.7 
81.6 










9.6 






4.8 
4.1 


9- 

7.6 
6.7 


'3-3 
,1.4 


28. 


48.6 
41.9 
37-2 
30. S 

27- 


74- 
65- 
56. 
47- 
40.8 






24- 

21.2 












8.7 


17.6 



















NOTIv. -One acre covered with water one-half inch in depth, is equivalent to 1,815 cubic feet, or 13,577 gallons. 
The capacity of the tile can he expressed in cubic feet or gallons by multiplying the number of acres drained by 
either I,fil5 or 13.577, 



Table Showing the Quantity of Rainfall per Acre. 



Inches in Depth 


Cubic Feet 


oi Rain. 


per Acre. 


.1 


363 


■15 


544^ 


.2 


726 


■25 


907^ 


•3 


1,089 


•35 


1,270^ 


•4 


1.452 


■45 


i>633>£ 


•5 


1,815 


•55 


i,996J^ 



Gallons 

per Acre. 

2,715 
4-073 
5.430 
6,788 
8.146 

9-503 
10,861 
12,219 
13.577 
14.934 



Inches in Depth 


Cubic Feet 


of Rain. 


per Acre. 


.6 


3,178 


•65 


2,359>£ 


■7 


2,541 


•75 


2,722^ 


.8 


2,904 


•85 


3.085^ 


•9 


3.267 


■95 


3.448^ 


1.0 


3. 6 30 



Gallons 
per Acre. 

16,292 

I7. 6 5 
19,007 
20, 365 

21,723 
23,o8l 

24.438 
25.769 
27.154 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 



Porous Terra Cotta Water Cooler and Filter. 




Price each, $2.00. 

We call the attention of the trade to our 5-Gallon Water Cooler, which may also 
■ 1 as a filter where the water is not clear or free from impurities, by placing a couple 
of inches of clear gravel or pebbles on the perforated strainer, near the bottom of the 
cooler. 

In extremely hot weather it is well to cover the outside of the vessel with some coarse 
cloth (a grain sack will answer the purpose), which will keep damp by the moisture, which 
passes through the porous body to the exterior surface. 

Soak the wooden faucet before inserting it; if this is not done it will be liable to swell, 
and crack the cooler. 

When the gravel accumulates sediment, take it out, cleanse and replace. 

J8®* Keep in a shady place. 



Acid RcceiDcrs. 




O 

50 GAL. 
RECEIVER. 



*Acid Receivers, per gallon. 
Faucets, each 





60 GAL. 
RECEIVER. 



fc Price according t» capacity and number ordered. 



GLADDING, 



McBEAN & COMPANY, 



FIRE BRICK. 

Recent additions and improvements in our FIRH BRICK Department, enable us to supply the trade with the 
best quality of all standard sizes and styles of Fire Brick and Tile, at the lowest market prices. 






Square. Per 1000, 
Split. Per iooo, 
Arch. Per iood. 



I Key. Per iooo, 
Jamb. Per iooo, 
Circle. Per iooo, 

FIRE TILE. 




















Form. 


Dimensions. 


each. 


Form. 


Dimensions. 


each. 


Form. Dimensions. 


each. 


Square edge. 


Sx 8x2 in. 


"$ 


Square edge 


I2x 6x2 in. 


*$ 


Square edge 24x12x3 in. 


*$ 


Square edge. 


ioxioa2 in. 




Square edge 


14X 6x2 in. 




Square edge 24x15x3 in. 




Square edge. 


I2XI2\2 in. 




Square edge 


i6x 6x2 in. 




Square edge 28x12x3 in. 




Square edge. 


14x14x2 in. 




Square edge 


i8x 6x2 in. 




Square edge iSx 6x6 in. 




Square edge. 


16x16x2 in, 




Square edge 


24x12x2 in. 




Square edge 24.x 6x6 in. 




Square edge. 


18x18x2 in. 




Square edge 


20x15x3 in. 










Form. 


Price 

Dimensions. , 

each. 


Form. 


Dimensions. 


Price 
each. 


_ . . Price 
Form. Dimensions. 

each. 


Flanged edge 
Flanged edge 


24x12x3 in. *$ 
24x15x3 in. 1 


Flanged edge 
Flanged edge 


28x12x3 in. 
28x15x3 in. 


•$ 


Flanged edge 30x15x3 in. *$ 
Flanged edge 36x15x310. 



Any size or shape not given can be made to order at short notice. 



FIRE CLAY 



Crude, in bulk, per ion 

Finely ground, in bulk, per ton. 



Finely ground, in sacks of 150 lbs 

Fire Brick Dust, in sacks of 150 lbs 



When the ground clay is furnished in carload lots, sacked, we charge the market price tor the sacks, unless 
they are returned to us in good condition. 



* Price, according to quantity and point of delivery. 

■ When requesting' figures, please state quantity required. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 



31 



Terra Cotta Thimbles. 



II 




HI' 



These terra cotta thimbles are very strong and durable, and are used for forming the 
stove pipe holes in brick chimneys, etc. They do not contract or expand, and cause 
cracking in the plaster, as is often the case when metal thimbles are used. 

Price List of Thimbles. 



DlAMKTKR. 


4J4 Inches Long. 


6 Inches Long. 


8 Inches Long. 


10 Inches Long. 


12 Inches Long. 


4 inches. 


15 cents. 


20 cents. 








5 


20 " 


25 " 


30 cents. 


35 cents. 


40 cents. 


5'A - 


20 


25 " 


30 " 


35 " 


40 " 


6 


25 " 


3° " 


35 


40 " 


45 " 


7 


30 " 


35 " 


40 " 


45 " 


50 " 


8 


35 " 


40 " 


45 " 


50 " 


55 " 



Terra Cotta Starting Plates. 





With Hole. 



Solid. 



Price List of Starting Plates. 



10 x 10 inch, for supporting 5-inch chimney pipe, either with hole or solid, price 40 cents. 

12 x 12 " " " 6 " " ' ' '' " 50 " 

14 x 14 " " '' 8 " " " " " " " " 60 " 



32 CLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 

Terra Cotta Chimney Pipe. 

We take pleasure in introducing our improved Terra Cotta Chimney Pipe. They 
have come into very general use within the last few years, especially where bricks are not 
plenty or cheap, and they have given entire satisfaction. Among the advantages are: 

ist. They are made of the best prepared Fire Clay, a portion of which is calcined, 
and they do not contract and expand by heat and cold, thus making the most durable and 
perfect chimney flue known. 

2d. They are cheaper than brick by one-half. 

3d. They are smooth, and soot does not stick to them, as in the case with brick 
flues. In fact, pipes make a more perfect chimney than bricks, a smooth round bore 
being the best possible form for a smoke flue. 

4th. They are safer than brick flues. By referring to the illustration it will be seen 
that by filling the socket with cement, it will form a solid flue from starting point to roof. 
They do not require a mechanic to put them up, but can be erected by a person oi ordi- 
nary intelligence. Care should be taken to fill the socket with cement or mortar, as upon 
that depends its safety. They are very much lighter than brick (weight of six-inch pipe is 
only seventeen pounds per foot); need no foundation or support, and do not spring the 
joists. All lengths are made two feet, unless otherwise ordered. 



Chimney Pipe and Fittings. 



«r? 



! 




Ill 



f! 




m 



»,ij 



Price List of Chimney Pipe and Fittings. 



Caliber 

of 

Pipe. 


Price of Pipe 

per Foot, with 

or without 

Sockets. 


Openings or 
T's, 
Each. 


Bottom 
Pipe, 
Each. 


Elbows, 
Each. 


Offsets, 
Each. 


Weight of 

Pipe, 
per Foot. 


5 inch. 

6 inch. 
8 inch. 


25 cents. 
30 cents. 
40 cents. 


$I.OO 
I.20 
I.60 


$1.00 
I.20 
I.60 


$0.75 

- I. OO 

I.50 


$1-25 
I.50 
2.O0 


14 lbs. 
17 lbs. 
23 lbs. 



NOTE.— Our Chimney Pipe, Openings and Bottom Pipes are furnished in two-foot lengths. Shorter or longer 
lengths (up to four feet), and larger sizes can be furnished on short notice. 

See illustration of an Elbow, Fig. 4, page 4. 

See directions for erecting our Pipe Chimneys, on pages 34 and 35. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 33 

Terra Cotta Flue Linings. 

At the K.im very few first-class houses, either public or private, are no« built without 
Terra Cotta flue linings, either round or square (round is the best for draught) for each 
smoke flue in the chimneys, thus effectually protecting the buildings against fires. Our 
flues are made of the best fire clay. They cannot rust or decay; do not choke up or burn 
out; arc non-conductors ol heat; make a smooth, continuous Hue, with good draught, and 
avoid dangers caused by defective flues. A brick chimney, as ordinarily constructed, has 
on the inside a thin coating of lime mortar to make it smooth. In a few years the action 
of the heat and gases from coal cause the mortar lining and mortar in the joints to fall off, 
especially when the soot in the chimney burns out, then there remains a small opening in 
the brick work, through which there is always a draught. The heat from the chimney 
passes through this hole, and sets fire to the adjacent wood-work. This is the origin of 
fires from defective lines, from which cause not less than twenty-five per cent, of our fires 
occur. 

These flue linings are also very generally used for hot air flues for conducting the 
heat from furnaces to the several rooms in the house, being much superior to tin for this 
purpose, as they cannot rust or communicate fire to the wood-work through which they 

Insurance companies recognize the additional safety secured by the use of these flue 
linings, by insuring buildings thus protected at lower rates than they otherwise would. 

These goods commend themselves to all who examine them, and have grown into 
favor very rapidly in the past few years. Several cities have ordinances compelling their 
use in all new buildings, and there can be little doubt that such a policy will become gen- 
eral so soon as their utility shall become generally understood. 

Round and Square Flue Linings. 





J 



H 



Price List of Flue Linings and Fittings. 



Inside Measure. 


Outside Measure. 

7 inches. 


Round 25 cents. 


Ts, each 

JSi.'oo 


Weight, per Foot 


Feet to carload 
of 10 tons: 


5 inches. 


12 lbs. 


1670 


6 inches. 


8 


inches. 


Round 30 cents. 


I.20 


14 lbs. 


I430 


8 inches. 


IO 


inches. 


Round 40 cents. 


I.60 


18 lbs. 


I I20 


io inches. 


I2"4 


inches. 


Round 60 cents. 


2 40 


25 lbs. 


800 


x 7 inches. 


S'-x s/ 2 


inches. 


Square 35 cents. 


I.4O 


19 lbs. 


IO60 


xi I '_■ inches. 


8^x13 


inches. 


Square 60 cents. 


2.4O 


24 lbs. 


835 ' 


xi5)-2 inches. 


8^x17 


inches. 


Square 75 cents. 


3.OO 


30 lbs. 


670 


4xi i}i inches. 


'3 *>3 


inches. 


Square 75 cents. 


3.OO 


30 lbs. 


670 



A charge of one foot additional will be made for pipe holes. 



GLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 



Directions for Erecting Terra Gotta Pipe Chimneys. 

[For Illustration, see page 36.] 



Mode of Erecting.— The pipes should be set with their socket ends up (more espe- 
cially for inside work), as this gives the best opportunity of making the joints tight, and 
prevents the mortar from dropping out. Especial care should be taken to completely fill 
the annular space between the spigot and socket ends of the pipe with mortar, as upon 
that depends the chimney's safety. Carefully remove from inside of the pipe all project- 
ing mortar before it hardens. Where joints are made above the roof, as illustrated in 
chimney 2, or when chimneys are erected on the outside of a building, great care should 
be taken to properly fill the joints with hydraulic cement mortar, and slope the cement 
filling from the pipe to outside of socket, so that the water will drain off and not enter the 
chimney through any defective filling. 

In districts where considerable rain falls, it might be advisable where chimneys are 
erected on the outside of a building, to reverse or erect with the sockets down, as illus- 
trated in chimney 1. This will certainly prevent water from entering at the joints, even 
should the mortar and workmanship be poor. 

These chimneys can be inclosed, with lath and plaster, or other materials, the same as 
a flue of brick. 

Size of Pipe.— The five-inch pipe is mostly used for parlor and other small stoves; 
the six-inch for ranges, stoves and ordinary sized fire-places; the eight-inch for extra large 
fire-places (such as used in country houses), or where more than one stove is to be con- 
nected with the chimney; also for small furnaces. Any chimney will give better satisfac- 
tion if only one stove is connected with it. 

We keep in stock at all times, the 5, 6 and 8-inch, with the necessary fittings, and 
frequently have on hand 10 and 12-inch, and can make any size up to 24-inch on short 
notice. 

Pipe without Sockets.— If you erect the chimney with the socket ends up, which 
is the proper mode, and desire to finish with a cap or top, the last or top pipe on the 
chimney must be without a socket, so that the cap or top will fit over it. 

Occasionally in transit a length of pipe may have a piece broken out of the socket; 
in that event knock off the remainder of the socket, or if broken below that point, cut the 
pipe off evenly with a hatchet, chisel or saw, and use it for a top pipe. 

Openings orTs.— Our chimney Ts are made in one and two feet lengths, and with 
opening's 2 to S}4 inches in length; the latter are of sufficient length to pass through the 
side or partition of a building, as illustrated in chimneys 1 and 3. We also keep in stock 
Ts with openings ten and twelve inches long, for use when an extra length is required. 
If you desire to connect two stoves with one chimney below the ceiling, as illustrated in 
chimney 3, you would require two Ts each a foot in length, one with an opening of suffi- 
cient length to pass through the partition. Double Ts, or two openings on one pipe are 
sometimes used, but it is preferable to use the two short Ts, because the openings can be 
turned in any direction desired. 

We make the openings of the following sizes, viz.: on the 5-inch pipe, 5 inch; on the 
6-inch pipe, 5 and 6 inch ; and on the 8-inch pipe, 6 and 8 inch openings. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 35 



Bottom Pipes.— Hottom Pipes are made in two foot lengths, with the supporting rim 
placed at different distances <> to 16 inches) above ihe bottom orspigol end. These pipes 
.1 where you wish to start a chimney in the middle of a room, or at souk- point 
where it is not convenient or desirable to construct a shelf, The projecting rim is made to 
rest on the ceiling joists, or any support erected for the purpose, and is of sufficient 
strength to carry the weight of twenty-live feet of pipe. 

Elbows.— Elbows (see fig. 4, page 4) are rarely used in the construction of pipe 
chimneys. 

Thimbles.— Should yon desire to reduce the size of the opening, Thimbles can be 
used for the purpose, thus: 5-inch openings can be reduced to 4 inches by inserting a 
4-inch Thimble, and in like manner a 6 to 5-inch and 8 to 6-inch with a 6-inch Thimble. 

Tin Collars.— Where the pipe passes through a roof, ceiling, partition, or side of a 
building, the circular opening should be at least one inch larger than the outside diameter 
of the pipe, around which should be placed, and closely fitted to it, a tin or sheet-iron 
collar, which could be nailed to the wall or ceiling. When a tin collar is used where the 
pipe passes through the roof, hydraulic cement mortar should be used in connection with 
it, so as to make it perfectly tight and prevent leakage. 

Iron Roof Plates. -A roof plate (as illustrated in chimney 2) is slightly flaring at 
the top, so as to give sufficient space around the pipe in which to place hydraulic cement 
mortar. The upper, or side of the plate nearest to peak of roof, should be placed under 
the shingles, so as to prevent water from running under and down the pipe into the 
building. 

Another form of roof plate and one which we can highly recommend is illustrated in 
chimney 3. Instead of placing a pipe without a socket on the top of chimney, it is placed 
one length lower, and one with a socket substituted, and placed with the socket end down 
and over the roof plate and pipe. 

In this instance the roof plate must encircle the pipe closely. Any of the tops de- 
scribed on pages 39 and 40 will fit over the different sizes of our Chimney Pipe with the 
roof plate encircling it. 

Starting Plates.— Starting Plates can be of Terra Cotta, Iron or Wood. Place on 
either of these plates a layer of mortar one or two inches in thickness, into which the pipe 
should be pressed; also place inside at bottom of the pipe more mortar, especially if a 
wooden plate is used. A common and secure way is to lay a couple of courses of brick 
work on a wooden starting plate or shelf, on which to rest the pipe. 

With one of our hole starting plates the chimney can easily be cleaned. The hole can 
be closed with a cover, similar to those used to close stove-pipe holes in brick chimneys. 

Mortar.— Either of the following mortars will answer for inside work: ordinary lime 
mortar well slacked, lime mortar and hydraulic cement mixed, or one part hydraulic 
cement to two parts of clean, sharp sand. For work exposed to the weather, use the 
hydraulic cement and sand, and use as soon as mixed. 

Wooden Base.— A wooden base built into the roof, as illustrated in chimney 4, with 
the pipe extending six to twelve inches above the top of the base, on which and over the 
pipe is placed one of our Chimney Tops, which would make an ornamental and fine finish 
to the chimney, and prevent rain from entering it. 



GLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 



CHIMNEY CAP. 




See Directions for Erecting our Terra Cotta Pipe Chimneys, on the preceding pages. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 



37 



Terra Cotta Chimney Caps. 

These Caps fit our 5. 6 and 8 Inch Chimney Pipe. Also the Tops described on pages 39 to 4-2. 




Wind Guard. Open Cap. 

N>>. 1 5, 5 inch Si -oo 

No. 16, 6 inch 1.25 

No. 1;. 8 inch 1.50 




Plain, Covered Cap. 

No. 21, 5 inch $1.00 

No. 22, 6 inch 1. 25 

No. 23, S inch 1.50 




Anti-Down Draught Cap. 

No. 33, 5 inch $1.25 

No. 34, 6 inch 1.50 

No. 35, 8 inch 2.00 




Wind Guard, Open Cap. 

No. iS, 5 inch $1.25 

No. 19, 6 inch 1.50 

No. 20, 8 inch 2.00 




Wind Guard, Covered Cap. 

No. 24, 5 inch $1-50 

No. 25, 6 inch 2.00 

No. 26, 8 inch 2. 50 




Anti-Down Draught Cap. 

No. 36, 5 inch $1.50 

No. 37, 6 inch 2.00 

No. 38, 8 inch 2.50 




Bonnet Tops. 



With Prices, Etc. 



5 inch. 

6 inch. 
8 inch. 



3*4 feet. 
3^ feet. 
3^ feet. 



Price. 

$1-50 
2.00 
2.50 



50 lbs. 
65 lbs. 
80 lbs. 



These Bonnet Tops fit our 5, 6 and 8 inch Chimney Pipe. 



GLADDING, M c B E A N & COMPANY, 



Terra Cotta Chimney Tops. 



Our Chimney Tops are made of superior Fire Clay, which we warrant to stand the 
weather in any climate. They are of a handsome buff color, and are highly ornamental, 
as well as useful for curing smoky chimneys, which are generally caused by wind blowing 
into the top of the chimney and obstructing the ascending current of smoke. But these 
tops are made in such a shape as to throw up any transverse current of wind and cause 
it to pass over the flue instead of into it. 

The value of Chimney tops is too much underrated; besides giving an ornament and 
finish to the chimney, the benefits of their use are numerous : 

First, lengthening the chimney, thereby improving the draught 

Second, separating the flues, thus preventing the smoke of one chimney from being 
blown down the one adjoining. 

Third, protecting the top of the chimney from decay, caused by the gases of the 
coal destroying the adhesion of the mortar to the bricks or stones, as will be readily 
observed by an examination of the tops of chimneys in use a few years. 

Fourth, unlike galvanized iron tops, they are not affected by coal gas or the 
weather, and do not rust out nor require replacing every two or three years. 



Directions for Placing Tops on Brick Chimneys. 

Our tops are easily applied to any common chimney, by taking off one or two 
courses of brick, sufficient to give the top a firm hold in the brick - work, and then 
replacing the brick about the base of the Chimney Top with cement. See that the 
top is set perfectly level. Many persons are under the impression that these tops 
will not retain their places in windy weather, and think they should be constructed 
so as to socket into the chimney, but this is a mistake. If the proper pains are 
taken to set them on solid brick - work with cement, and in the manner above given, 
or even without enclosing their bases with the brick - work of the chimney, they will 
resist as heavy wind storms as the chimney itself. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 



TERRA COTTA CHIMNEY TOPS. 







No. 152. 






No. 166. No. 167. 

Price List. 




The Tops on this Page will fit our 5 and 6 inch Chimney Pipe. 



GLADDING, M c B E A N & COMPANY. 

TERRA COTTA CHIMNEY TOPS. 







*m 



No. 153. 



SB 




No. 136. 




If 



No. 138. 

Price List. 




Number. 


Price. 


Outside Diameter 
at Base. 


Inside Diameter 
at Base. 


136 
138 
139 
153 
159 


$3.50 
5.00 
4-50 
4-50 
3-50 
4.00 


14 inches. 
14 inches. 
14 inches. 
14 inches. 
14 inches. 
14 inches. 


12 inches. 
12 inches. 
12 inches. 
12 inches. 
12 inches. 
12 inches. 



Inside Diameter 
at Top. 



%% inches. 
%% inches. 
8J^ inches. 
SVo inches. 
8^2 inches. 
8'« inches. 



The Tops on this page will fit our 8 inch Chimney Pipe. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 



TERRA COTTA CHIMNEY TOPS. 






Nos. 121, 122, 
123 & 124. 



Nos. 130, 131 &134-. 



Price List. 







Outside Dimensions 


Inside Dimensions 


Inside Diameter 


Number. 


Price. 












at Base. 


at Base. 


at Top. 


121 


$3-5° 


8x10 inches. 


6 x S inches. 


6yi inches. 


122 


3-50 


8x12 inches. 


6 xio inches. 


b l /> inches. 


123 


3- 50 


8x14 inches. 


6 x 1 2 inches. 


t l /> inches. 


124 


3- 50 


10x10 inches. 


8x8 inches. 


6)4 inches. 


'3° 


4- 50 


10x14 inches. 


8 xi 2 inches. 


8J4 inches. 


131 


4-5o 


12x12 inches. 


10 xio inches. 


8 l /i inches. 


'34 


4-5o 


10x20 inches. 


8 xiS inches. 


8yi inches. 


140 


3-5° 


10x10 inches. 


8^x 8% inches. 


6^4 inches. 


141 


4- 50 


12x12 inches. 


ioyixJo}4 inches. 


8 x /i inches. 



These Tops will fit any size of Chimney Flue. 



GLADDING, 



McBEAN & COMPANY, 



TERRA COTTA CHIMNEY TOPS. 





CO 




-7 




Nos. 126, 127, 
128 & 129. 



Nos. 132, 133 & 135. 



No. 14-2. 



No. 143. 



Price List. 



126 

127 

128 

129 
K-, 2 
'33 
135 
142 

M3 





Outside Dimensions 


Inside Dimensions 


Inside Diameter 
















at Base. 




at Base. 


at Top. 


$5.00 


8x10 inches. 


6 


x S 


inches. 


6j4 inches. 


5.00 


8x12 inches. 


6 


xio 


inches. 


ty 2 inches. 


5.00 


8x14 inches. 


6 


xi2 


inches. 


byi inches. 


5-oo 


10x10 inches. 


S 


x S 


inches. 


6 1 /, inches. 


6.00 


10x14 inches. 


8 


xi2 


inches. 


8'/i inches. 


6.00 


12x12 inches. 


10 


XIO 


inches. 


S}4 inches. 


6.00 


10x20 inches. 


S 


XI8 


inches. 


&yi inches. 


5.00 


10x10 inches. 


8', 


W sy 


z inches. 


6}4 inches. 


6.00 


12x12 inches. 


10J 


ixioy 


1 inches. 


Syi inches. 



These Tops will fit any size of Chimney Flue. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 



43 



TERRA COTTA CHIMNEY TOPS. 




No. 149. 



Price List. 







Outside Diameter 


Inside Diameter 


Inside 


liameter 


Number. 


Price. 














:ii Base. 


at Base. 


at 


Top. 


109 


$5.00 


12 inches. 


10 inches. 


6>£ 


inches. 


no 


6.00 


14 inches. 


11 inches. 


S}4 


inches. 


1 12 


6.00 


I2.\ 12 inches. 


10x10 inches. 


6x6 


inches. 


146 


7.00 


14 inches. 


12 inches. 


9 


inches. 


M7 


7.00 


1 2.\ 12 inches. 


10x10 inches. 


7*7 


inches. 


148 


4.00 


12x12 inches. 


10x10 inches. 


7*7 


inches. 


140 


6.00 


i2x 12 inches. 


10x10 inches. 


7x7 


inches. 


150 


4.00 


12x12 inches. 


10x10 inches. 


S 


inches. 



GLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 



TERRA COTTA CHIMNEY TOPS. 





to 



11 






No. 145. 



■illliiB* 

NO. 144. 



Price List. 



Number. 


Price. 


Outside Dimensions 
at Base. 


- 

Inside Dimensions Inside Dimensions 
at Base. at Top. 


Ill 
'44 
'45 


00 00 po 

bob 

o o 


14x14 inches. 
14x14 inches. 
16x16 inches. 


12x12 inches. 
12x12 inches. 
14x14 inches. 


8x8 inches. 

8 inches round. 
8x8 inches. 



Chimneys capped with Terra Cotta Tops have an architectural appearance, the top 
bricks are protected from the weather, and the draught is greatly improved. 

We will guarantee the material, workmanship and style of our Tops, as 
superior to any other manufactured on this Coast. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 



Improoed Flower Pots and Saucers. 




No. 218. 

Our improved Flower Pots and Saucers far excel the old style in strength, uniformity 
of shape, etc. These pots are of a light yellow color, made of a clay much superior to that 
which is usually put into such goods. As will be seen in the cut, they are made so that 
the shoulder of one rests on the edge of the other, thus preventing the wedging of one 
into the other, which is the main cause of breakage in transit. 



Price List. 



POTS. 



SA UCERS. 



2 inch Pots $ 1.50 per ioo 

3 inch Pols 2 00 per 100 

4 inch Pols 3.00 per 100 

5 inch Pots 4.00 per 100 

6 inch Pots 5.00 per 100 

7 inch Pots 7.00 per 100 

S inch Pots 10.00 per 100 

g inch Pots. 15.00 per 100 

• o inch Pots 25 00 per 100 

12 inch Pots 35.00 per 100 



3 inch Saucers $ 1.50 per 100 

4 inch Saucers 2.00 per 100 

5 inch Saucers 2.50 per 100 

6 inch Saucers 3.50 per 100 

7 inch Saucers 5.00 per 100 

8 inch Saucers 6.50 per 100 

9 inch Saucers 8.00 per 100 

10 inch Saucers 10.00 per 100 

12 inch Saucers 15.00 per 100 



S9J* When ordering our Improved Pots, if you also require the Saucers, be particulai 
to state it in your order. 

Packing of Flower Pots and Saucers, extra. 



Shingled Pot and Saucer. 



Palm Tree Pot. 




No. 222. 

No. 222, 4 inch, per dozen $1 .00 

No. 222, 6 inch, per dozen 1 .50 

No. 222, 8 inch, per dozen 2.50 




ll| ll| l|]|)ii!i!i aP 

No. 219. 

No. 219, 14 inch, each $ .75 

No. 219, 16 inch, each 1-5° 

No. 219, 18 inch, each 2.00 

No. 219, 22 inch, each 3-oo 












GLADDINC, McBEAN & COMPANY, 



Terra Cotta Garden Vases. 



The beauty and attraction of yards and lawns are much enhanced by the tasty 
disposal of a few Vases. We can furnish them in numerous designs, at half the cost 
of iron, while the material of which they are made is much better adapted to the 
healthy growth of plants. 




For safe shipment, we make our Vases in two parts; the upper part is known as 
the Bowl, and the lower part as the Stand. 

When the bowl and stand are placed together, the open space marked B should 
be filled with cement, so that the water will be forced to pass down and out through 
the hole in the stand, marked A. 

If you paint the Vases, they should be oiled inside and out with boiled linseed 
oil, before painting. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 



TERRA COTTA VASES. 




?7JW:fcl4&\3 



Nos. 1 to 5. 






Nos. 12 and 13. 



No. lO. 




Em* 



No. 15. 



Prices and Dimensions. 



No. i . 
No. 2 
No. 3 . 
No. 4 
No. 5 
No. 10 
No. 12 
No. 13 
No. 15 
No. 24 



Width, 13 inches. 
Width, 15 inches. 
Width, 17 inches. 
Width, 20 inches. 
Width, 23 inches. 
Width, 15 inches. 
Width, 13 inches. 
Width, 17 inches. 
Width, 14 inches. 
Width, 18 inches. 



Height, 


12 inches. 


Price, 


$1.25 


Height, 


13 inches. 


Price, 


1.50 


Height, 


IS inches. 


Price, 


2.00 


Height, 


18 inches. 


Price, 


2.50 


Height, 


20 inches. 


Price, 


3.00 


Height, 


15 inches. 


Price, 


2.50 


Height, 


14 inches. 


Price, 


i-75 


Height, 


18 inches. 


Price, 


.3-5° 


Height, 


21 inches. 


Price, 


3.00 


Height, 


22 inches. 


Price. 


4.50 












GLADDING, M c B E A N & COMPANY, 



TERRA COTTA VASES. 




Vase No. 4. 


Width, 20 inches. 


Height, 18 inches. 


Price, $2.50 


Vase No. 5. 


Width, 23 inches. 


Height, 20 inches. 


Price, 3.00 


Pedestal No. 50. 


Width, 16 inches. 


Height, 15 inches. 


Price, 2.50 


Pedestal No. 51. 


Width, 21 inches. 


Height, 20 inches. 


Price, 4.00 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 



49 



TERRA COTTA VASES. 



Pedestal 




Vase and Pedestal sold separately if desired. 



No. 23. Vase. Width, 21 inches. 

No. 55. Pedestal. I Width, 16 inches. 



Height, 18 inches. 
Height, 20 inches. 



Price, $4.00 
Price, 4.00 




No. 27. 



No. 27. Lawn Vase. | Width. 27 inches. | Height. 28 inches. | Price. 815.00 



r4i • "H 



GLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 



LAWN VASES. 





1 1 fmii 





No. 26. 

No. 28. 



Width, 27 inches. 
Width, 26 inches. 



Height, 38 inches. 
Height, 42 inches. 



Price, $20.00 
Price, 25.00 



No. 28, an EGYPTIAN VASE.— Copy of a Vase found in the ruins of Thebes. 
Though broken in many pieces, on placing the fragments together it was found to be 
entire, and is now in the British Museum. Antiquarians think it more than 3,000 
years old. 



[^.#c 



-\XMo\e 




SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 



Iv L. ~~ 1 1"\U U r 1 1 x Lf, within the past ten years, has advanced 
rapidly to a position of great importance in the construction and 
protection of our prominent buildings, and few who can recall the 
general apathy toward any innovation upon the stereotyped methods 
of constructing buildings a few years since, can realize the encourag- 
ing progress made in the introduction and practical application ol fire- 
proofing. In fact, a building erected at the present time, of any size 
or importance, is an exception if some method of fire protection 
■ incorporated in its construction. 

This change, marking as it does an era in building, has not been spasmodic, but 
rather the result of constant demand, produced, to a certain extent, by the efforts put 
forth by the promoters of non-combustible methods of building, but largely by the desire 
among careful, thinking men, who contemplate the erection of beautiful buildings, to make 
them not only ornamental, but thorough and substantial as well. 

The losses by lire during the last decade have been almost unprecedented in the 
history of the West, and this has contributed in a marked degree to the demand for pro- 
tection against the arch enemy, fire, not by carrying a heavy line of insurance (insurance 
will not prevent a building from burning), but rather in the only real protection to the 
interest of capital, i. e., in so erecting buildings that loss by fire is made impossible, thus 
obviating a heavy annual outlay for insurance premiums. 

Can a Building be made Fire-Proof? This is a question asked by thousands — 
and generally doubted even at this day. We maintain that a building can not only be 
erected fire-proof, but that when so designed, is necessarily constructed of material proof 
against the action of fire, and at the same time much more substantial and time-enduring 
than a combustible form of structure. 

What constitutes a Fire-Proof Building? Our reply is that the term fire-proof, 
when applied to a building, contemplates that the edifice, in all its strticiural parts, should 
be formed entirely of non-combustible materials, meaning thereby that all the interior and 
exterior of the structure should be built of material calculated to successfully resist the 
injurious action of extreme heat. Beginning with a substantial foundation, the walls of a 
" Thoroughly Fire-Proof Building" should be built either of brick or stone. The great 
Chicago fire of 187 1 demonstrated conclusively that the only building material that suc- 
cessfully withstood the fire was " brick ; " hence we say, construct your building of good 
brick as a base, and beautify it as taste may dictate, with terra cotta, etc. 

After the walls, the next factor of importance is the floors. In all cases they should 
be built with a combination of iron I-beams and non-combustible filling/covered over with 
cement concrete. 

The partitions for dividing the various floors into rooms, corridors, etc., should be 
built of absolutely non-combustible material, and where the roof and upper ceiling of the 
building are treated similarly, all danger of spread of fire in such a building is made 
impossible. 

It is often observed by skeptics that the wooden flooring, base, wainscot, architraves, 
doors, etc., that are put into a fire-proof building after the plastering has been applied, is 
sufficient to burn the structure. This is most emphatically a misrepresentation, and can 
only be accepted as truth by novices, for the reason that so long as " fire " can be con- 
fined to its prescribed limits, as in the case of furnaces, boilers, fireplaces, etc., it becomes 
an easy agent to control; but when afforded any opportunity by flagrant neglect in building, 



52 



CLADDING, 



McBEAN & COMPANY, 



it is a matter of time only when the best structure, built of combustible materials, will 
be reduced to cinders; therefore, we maintain that when the structural portions of the 
building are non-combustible, the contents can be what they may; and in case fire does 
attack them, the loss is merely nominal, as the fire cannot spread from the room of its 
inception. 

The use of various materials has been introduced for the purpose of fire-proof pro- 
tection for buildings, all more or less effective. The general, and perhaps to-day the 
oldest modern system for floor construction, has been the brick arch between iron beams; 
then have followed the corrugated iron and concrete arch, lime of teil plaster arch, and 
numerous others, including the Hollow Tile flat arch. All these systems have their ad- 
vantages, and consequently any of them are much to be preferred to a wooden form of 
construction, but they also have disadvantages when compared one with the other. 




The above view represents the interior of an ideal Jire-proof building, and in pre- 
senting it a positive reply is given to those who may doubt the possibility of absolute 
protection from fire in a building. 




SAN .FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 53 



l*v \J rl L. O for floors form l>y far the most important relation 
to the fire-proof quality of the interior of a structure. Ages 
ago it was usual to rely upon the stone or masonry arch in 
groined form, for fire-proof floor protection; but the advent 
of the iron era has rendered obsolete the time -honored 
methods so long tried and so historically perfect, which to- 
day stand as firm as they were centuries ago, but which the spirit of the age has dis- 
carded. We have learned to build, undeniably not so permanently, but certainly much 
cheaper than our ancient predecessors; and the problem now is, to produce the result re- 
quired with the use of the least amount of material and in the shortest space of time 

The use oi iron beams for floor construction dates from 1820, they being first intro- 
duced in England. Since their advent the necessity for some non-combustible material 
to fill between the beams has been felt to such a degree that numberless forms and compo- 
sition of materials have been introduced, tried, and found wanting in some essential 
particular. Hollow Tile Floor Arches have withstood the tide of adverse criticisms for 
sixteen years, and to-day rank first as compared with every other form of material for 
this purpose. 

We claim for our system of Floor Arch construction the greatest strength with the 
least amount of space and material; it is but one-third the weight of brick or concrete arches, 
affords a level ceiling beneath, without the necessity for furring and lathing. 

The soffits of the iron beams are completely fire-proofed, can be set in place in any 
season of the year, and are ready for plastering almost as soon as laid; and finally, all 
' things considered, is the cheapest and most satisfactory form of construction known. 

On page 66 we give a table of sizes and weights of iron beams recommended by us 
to be used with our Hollow Tile Floor Arches. 

Architects, in specifying for the use of Hollow Tile Arches, should state the size 
(governed by the depth of the beam) of the tile required, a full list of sizes which we 
manufacture being shown on the drawings. We carry a stock of the standard sizes, and 
can fill orders at short notice. 

Floor arches, to form a satisfactory job, should be made of the best quality of fire-clay, 
mixed with a small percentage of potter's clay. The tile should be free from cracks or 
defects affecting their strength to sustain weight, and should in all cases be capable of sus- 
taining, after being set in place, an equally distributed load of 500 pounds upon each 
superficial foot of surface without deflection. 

Properly constructed, portable centers are required to set the tile arches, and these 
should remain in place at least twenty-four -hours after the arches are set, before being 
" struck." 



54 



GLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 



The voussoir or butment pieces, being those next the beam, are formed in such a 
manner as to support the flat beam tile, as shown on the sections. These butment pieces 
should be carefully set, and rest squarely upon the flange of the beam; each section or 
piece of tile forming the arch should be of such shape as to make it impossible to dislodge 
any one piece from its position by contact from the top, — in other words, should be " key- 
shaped." The last or center piece is called the " key," and upon the setting of this piece 
the strength and solidity of the arch is largely dependent; it should always be made to fit 
tight in its place, and in no case should a joint exceeding one-half inch be permitted. 
In laying the tile, a mortar composed of lime mixed up with coarse screened sand, in pro- 
portions of four to one, and richly tempered with hydraulic cement, should be used. This 
makes a strong mortar, and works well with the tile. Usually the tile are " shoved " to 
place with full horizontal joints, and butt joints left dry. 

In cases where there is no plastering to be applied, the butt joints should be " flushed 
while the tile are being laid. 

In all cases, the tile should be laid to "break joints " alternately, one with the other. 



up 




The drawings of the arches represent the tile as filling the beams within one inch of 
the top. The object of this is to afford a chance for the usual wooden floor or furring 
strips to be attached, by means of a cleat nailed to the furring strip, and caught under the 
top flange of the beam. 

Variations in the spans from center to center of beams are arranged for by using with the 
arch, as necessity may require, " Half Intermediate Tile, " and several sizes of "Key Tile." 

When we can ascertain the number of lineal feet of the various spans of arch that 
will be required, no difficulty is caused, however much they vary, as we only ship the 
proper forms necessary to accommodate the spans. 

It is a safe rule, however, for architects to so arrange their ironwork that the size of 
arch to be used and the span between the beams will be as near uniform as possible 
throughout a building designed for Hollow Tile. 

Plastering can be applied directly on the surfaces of the tile. We recommend one 
thin, scratched, and one brown coat before applying the hard finish, in order to form a 
perfect job of plastering; this, however, on the tile should cost no more than the ordinary 
two-coat plastering, for the reason that there is no mortar wasted in the " clinch," as is 
the case in plastering on lath. Prominent plasterers have stated their preference in favor 
of plastering on any kind of tile work as compared with lathing, and no extra charge is 
ever allowed. 

Hollow Tile Arches, when finished in place, should be left straight and true upon the 
under side; but no pointing up or filling of butt joints is necessary, for the reason that the 
plaster coat is benefited by such roughness. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 



55 



STANDARD ARCHES. 



OOOOOT 




— /4m> 



Siniidan] i -inch Hollow Tile Floor Arch. Weight, 13 pounds pet square foot, 

l Sftf.E_Sf^tl_llP.Tp..5'_[l' 




mo 




St&ndard 7-iuch Hollow Tile Floor Arch. Weight, 25 pounds per square foot. 

SaFeSpAM UPT_° 5„6 „_*T 




Standard 8-inch Hollow Tile Floor Arch. Weight, 29 pounds per square foot. 
..5 &EE.SM n up to 6 ; _ 0" . 




Standard 9-inch Hollow Tile Floor Arch. Weight, 33 pounds per square foot. 

It - .....SftFE.SrAN.yp.m.fi'6^ ^ 




'. ..- • . - , " ■ . -■ ■ j 




nnnoa 



10 inch Web Tile Floor Arcll. Weight, 40 pounds per square Foot. 

During the past two years there have been introduced large span segment Hollow Tile 
Arches, like the drawing, for use in malt-houses, breweries, warehouses, etc., where it was 

Large Span. 




not considered necessary to obtain level ceilings below, and the results obtained have 
proven both economical and satisfactory. 



GLADDING, 



McBEAN & COMPANY. 




f\ Iv 1 1 I 1 \J 1M O dividing the various floors of a building 
into compartments are, perhaps, next of importance to the floor 
construction in the necessity for fire-proof treatment, and we main- 
tain that no building can be considered safe from the injurious effects 
of fire, built with partitions constructed in the ordinary manner, with 
wooden studs covered with laths, even though the floors should be 
fire-proofed. The combustible nature of a stud and lath partition 
is so great that the entire structure would be seriously injured should 
a fire once get fairly under way. We have therefore conformed hollow tiie to the requisite 
shapes, to enable us to build fire-proof partitions only three inches thick, that are in them- 
selves as proof against fire as the best twelve-inch brick wall. The advantages we claim 
for Hollow Tile Partitions above all other methods are: Greatest strength, with the least 
amount of space and weight; absolutely indestructible by fire ; sound, vermin and rat 
proof; perfect surface for the receipt of plaster, and adaptability to the use of the arch- 
itect, it being easy to accommodate tile to all the various angles and returns of a building 
without increasing the expense. 




Views of 3, 4 and 5 inch Tile Partitions. 

We make tile for 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 inch partitions, and the material used is the same as 
for floor arches, the shape only being changed. The tile are laid in regular courses, 12 
inches high, to " break joints," thus making a firm and substantial wall, and accounting 
to a great extent for the wonderful strength of the light partitions that have been built 
by us. 




Plan View of Partition. 



Mortar, composed of rich lime and coarse, sharp sand, is used to lay the tile for par- 
titions that are built in the interior of buildings, but rich cement mortar should be used 
wherever the tile comes in contact with the. weather. In building the tile partitions, wood 
bricks are set in the vertical and horizontal joints to afford nailing surface for the architrave, 
base, wainscot and wherever necessary. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 57 

It has been urged against Hollow Tile ih.it the difficulty of driving nails into it acts 
.i> .1 disadvantagei and reference is made to partitions i I of soft, spongy < i mh j >< >>i - 

tion. such as lime of teil and cinders and terra cotta lumber, the claim being that no wood 
bricks are necessary. While the fact is acknowledged that it is possible to drive a nail 
into the materials mentioned, our experience lias shown us the foils - of relying upon a 
nail driven into a substance without fibre, particularly when done with the intention of 
securing woodwork. In fact, so-called terra eotta lumber walls arc all built at 
this date with wood jambs, studs and blocks, as it has been found impracticable to rely 
upon soft-burned clay tiles as a nailing ground. Therefore, we maintain that the hardness 
of Hollow Tile is no disadvantage to it, but rather in its favor, particularly as it is a guar- 
antee of strength and lasting qualities; and all danger from frost or dampness during' con- 
struction is obviated, as the hard burned Hollow Tiles are not perceptibly affected by the 
elements; whereas, porous terra cotta lumber is so slightly burned that the least dampness 
affects it. and, combined with frost, a total collapse from disintegration is usually the result. 
Again, it has been ascertained recentlv that, owing to the soft burn that is given porous 
terra cotta lumber, the salts remaining in the poor quality of clay used in its manufacture 
exude themselves after the plastering has been applied to the walls, and many a costly job 
of frescoing has been destroyed when applied to walls built with terra cotta lumber. 

Objections of this kind cannot be made to our Hollow Tile, as we use only the best 
quality of fire-clay in our manufacture, and are thus enabled to burn the material suffi- 
ciently to effectually destroy any alkali — exudating salts that might exist in the clay. 




ARCHITRAVE 



At all openings in the partitions 2x4 wood frames are set, to stiffen the jambs and 
afford grounds for the plastering, and also for the attachment of the architraves, etc., as 
shown by sketch. 

In all buildings designed for the use of Hollow Tile partitions, provision should be 
made for the attachment of picture moldings, which are not only a most useful addition, 
but at the same time add much to the finish of a room. The Hollow Tiles for partitions, 
being built with the hollow spaces running vertically, afford ample opportunity for the 
introduction of flues for ventilating, heating, etc.; also for the concealment of gas and 
water pipes, which are built in the hollow of the tiles. Electric wires, speaking-tubes, etc., 
can be disposed of in the same manner. 

Architects, specifying Hollow Tile for interior partitions, should state the size required 
and designate any change in or addition to the ordinary partition that may be desired. In 
all cases, of course, the work is to be built plumb, straight and true. but. as is the case in 
any masonry wall of one thickness of material, it is not to be expected that both sides ol 
the partition should be "fair," but that the walls should be left reasonably straight and 
even on both sides for the plasterers. 

We have frequently had occasion to test the strength of our partitions in unusual 
manners. In one instance there was erected a 4 inch tile partition 20 feet long and 132 
feet high without extraneous support, and the wall can be seen at any time at the Calumet 
Building on La Salle street, Chicago. On another occasion a wall was built 30 feet long 
and 22 feet high, and in making an alteration in the location of a doorway some 22 feet of 
the wall by 8 feet high was cut out, and to test the solidity of the wall, it was not shored 
up, and the 14 feet remaining above the opening held its position without a crack appear- 
ing in the plastering. 



58 



GLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 




OOF CONSTRUCTION 



for fire - proof building 
is, perhaps, the most important external feature of the structure, 
and often receives but little attention. A good fire-proof roof is 
certainly a great desideratum, but how few really non-combustible 
roofs are erected? It seems to be generally conceded at this time 
that a building in order not to burn should be thoroughly fire- 
proof in all its parts, but we are constantly hearing of buildings 
designed complete throughout the interior of non-inflammable material, but inclosed 
with a roof constructed principally of wood. Why it should be so, we are at a loss to 
determine. The danger of such a method of construction has been demonstrated on 
numerous occasions, principally by the burning ot the wood roof of the United States 
Patent Office Building at Washington, and recently by the wholesale destruction of the 
roofs of various court houses and office buildings in the West. 

That substantial fire-proof buildings should be erected complete to the roof line, and 
then endangered by a cheap wooden fire-trap, as an apology for a roof, is a satire upon the 
reasoning faculty of the constructor, as there seems to be no consistent reason for such a 
" penny-wise " principle, when " Hollow Tile" can be so readily adapted for the purpose 
of every form of roof construction. 

We show in the drawings several methods of roof construction with the tile applied. 
The first is a view of a mansard roof formed ot I-beams, set 5 to 7 feet from center to 




center, and filled in between with 3 inch Hollow Partition Tile, provision lor nailing slate 
being made by attaching 1^x2 inch wood strips to the outer face of the tile, the strips 
being set at the proper distances apart to receive the slate — the spaces between the 
strips being then plastered flush and smooth with cement mortar. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 



59 



This is the most oi-onoinic.il form of mansard lh.it we know of, for the reason thai 
very little ironwork is required, and the tiles are quickly applied. The use of wood strips 

is no disadvantage to the tire-proof quality of the roof, for it is generally known that slates 
in themselves are quickly destroyed by fire, and after they have fallen off the only damage 
to the roof would be to burn off the strips, further spread of the fire being effectually 
retarded by the Fire-proof Tile. 




Hollow Tile set between T-irons makes a perfect roof when the weathering to be 
used is either felt, composition, cement or asphalt. The tiles are set in place between the 
T-irons with good cement mortar, the tops of the tile being left sufficiently smooth to re- 
ceive the weathering, which is applied directly upon the surface of the tile. Composition, 
cement and asphalt have a natural affinity for the tile, and adhere readily to it without the 
use of nails or fastenings. We make various sizes and forms of tile lor deck roofs, as 
shown in the drawings. 

Hollow Tile Floor Arches of the light patterns are also used for roofs, the tops of the 
tiles being set sufficiently smooth to receive the weathering when so ordered; but we 
recommend that when Tile Arches are used for roofs, that a Y\ inch coat of cement mortar 
be applied before the weathering is put on. Where it is desired to fire-proof wood roofs, 
we use a tile similar to the furring tile for outside walls, laid in place upon the top of the 




sheathing-boards in good cement, and then covered with the weathering. 

One and one-fourth inch thick Solid Segment Tiles are sometimes used for roofing 
purposes where it is desired to expose the under side of the tile and make an ornamental 
finish. This form of roof, laid between T-irons and neatly pointed below, has been used 
in many cases for boiler rooms, factories, etc., and presents an excellent appearance. 



GLADDING, M c B E A N & COMPANY, 



EILING AND FURRING, m most b Ui ,di„ gs 

of importance it becomes necessary to construct a false ceiling 
between the top floor and roof to disguise the pitch of the roof. 
Usually this ceiling has no other purpose than simply to make a 
straight surface for the plastering, there being no necessity for 
any more strength than just sufficient to sustain itself with plaster- 
ing, etc., therefore the simpler and lighter this ceiling can be 
made, the better. We manufacture a ceiling formed of ^ inch thick fire-clay tiles, with 
grooved edges, resting upon ixi inch T-irons, as shown in the drawings. These irons 
are set 12 inches from center to center, and will span up to 7 feet. They are in turn sup- 





ported by an L-iron running at right angles with themselves. The L-iron is punched at 
regular intervals of 12 inches, with holes, the same section as the T-iron, just large enough 
to permit the small irons to pass through, thus holding them securely in place without the 
necessity for bolts, rivets or screws. The L-irons are in turn supported, as the case may 
be, either from the soffits of the roof rafters or trusses, with light ^ inch rods attached to 
the same and furnished with nut and thread, so that any settlement or irregularity in the 
level of the work can be adjusted. 




Another form of false ceiling is constructed by using 3x3 T-irons, set 15 inches from 
center, and filling the same with flat tiles bedded in the flange of the T- irons, with fire- 
clay slab supported below the iron as shown. This ceiling is light and strong, and if 
necessary could be used as a floor for light purposes. 

We have occasionally been required to attach false ceilings to the soffit of hollow tile 
floor arches, for vent flues, etc. , and have accomplished it by the use of small bolts with 
T-heads, which are inserted into holes punched in the tile, and drawn close to the same 
with nut and thread. These bolts support 1% by No. 14 band iron, between which our 
l /i inch ceiling tiles are set. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 



61 




i j inch Furring on Brick Wall. 

The necessity for some non-conducting, fire-proof material to take the place of the 
wood and lath furring, usually applied on the interior of outside brick walls, to obviate the 
penetration of moisture, has long been felt, and we have made many experiments, with a 
view to securing the best form of material for the purpose at a moderate cost. 

The usual method of securing furring has been to tack wood strips to the brick wall 
forming the required projection, and then nail wood or iron laths to the same, or, as is 
occasionally done, to build the main walls of sufficient thickness to allow them to be built 
with a small air-space in the center, called " cavity walls." 

The objections to the foregoing methods are numerous; but the following reasons will 
be sufficient to explain the necessity for a radical change in this system of furring for 
buildings. When wooden laths are secured to the strips mentioned, the effect, when 
plastered, is to produce a surface that is easily distinguished from the remaining sides of a 
room by the dark discolorations of the laths and strips showing through the plaster. This 
is caused by the moisture coming through the walls and being absorbed by the wood, thus 
dampening the plaster sufficient to accumulate dust and present an unclean and irregular 
appearance. This fact is equally true of iron lath, the moisture causing it to rust and dis- 
color the plaster, and in addition the changes in temperature subject the iron form of lath 
to the damaging effects of expansion and contraction, causing the plaster coat to be 
cracked and unsightly. The objection and consequent unpopularity of the cavity form ot 
wall is the additional weight, space, and material required by its use, rendering it too ex- 
pensive for the purpose. By the use of our fire-proof tile furring all these defective 
features are obviated, while at the same time a substantial, economical, non-decaying, and 
fire-proof material is obtained with all the advantages, but none of the defects of the 
numerous other forms of furring at present in use. 

The furring tile are laid up in regular courses, with "break joint," good cement 
mortar being used. All necessary wood, bricks, etc., are built in the tile. By our method 
of furring, as will be observed by reference to the drawing, a complete circulation of air 
is obtained over the entire surface of the furred wall, which accounts for the universal 
freedom from dampness, where our furring tile have been applied. 

We maintain that a " Hollow Space" is essential to a perfect furring, and when a 
circulation of air can be obtained, all danger from the injurious effect of damp walls upon 
the interior finish is overcome. 



GLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 




RON 



enters largely into the structural economy of modern fire-proof 
buildings, and assumes important relations to the constructive detail 
of the work. Upon the economical use of iron much is dependent 
to obtain the result required at the minimum cost. Iron has been an 
active agent in the past thirty years in the building arts. It has 
enabled the architect to accomplish wonders in the erection of build- 
ings, when the greatest factor of strength within a limited space has 
been required, but valuable though it is, as a constructive agent, it is 
not a fire -proof material, in the sense that it will resist a severe heat without injury. 
Therefore it has been determined that where iron is used as a building material, it should 
be protected from injury by fire with a non-combustible material in such manner as to pre- 
clude the possibility of fire heating it to an extent sufficient to warp or twist it out of shape. 
To this end we recommend that all the exposed portions of 
the iron columns, girders and roof trusses of a building should 
be thoroughly protected by being incased with a covering of 
tile. The foregoing drawing represents an iron column in- 
closed with 1 3^ inch solid fire-clay tile. 

The tile are made of fire-clay, molded to suit the section 
plan of solid Tile column covering, of the column incased; an air space of one inch is left next to 
the column to act as a non-conductor. The tile are usually 
made in two pieces, and are laid to "break joint" on each 
alternate course, the different pieces being bound to each other 
with small cast-iron clamps, set in the ends of the tile, com- 
pletely securing the tile in place, without the necessity for 
tapping or drilling the iron column. We can apply our fire- 
proof tile to any form of column, and no special provision need 
be made for the receipt of the tile, so far as the shape of the 
column is concerned. 






The above view shows our method of fire-proofing iron 
girders. We use for this purpose fire-clay tiles with grooved 
solid Tile Fire-Proof column. ^.^ sml ii ar t0 our ce ilj ng tile; these are secured in place 

with band-iron strips encircling the girders; the tile are laid between the strips with 
gauged mortar. An air space of at least one inch is secured between the iron and the tile, 
which acts as a non-conductor and adds greatly to the efficiency of the fire-proof protec- 
tion. After the fire-proof tile are applied the columns and girders are treated with cement 
plaster or scagliola, as taste may dictate. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 




pectedl 



\J \J LJ, as a building material, is pre-eminently the most 
useful of all constructive substances, being easily worked 
and rapidly applied, and had it fire-resisting qualities would 
lie perfect. Within the past five years, we have experi- 
mented largely with a view to perfecting a method of build- 
ing by using wood as the structural agent, in combination 
with hollow tile. The results obtained have been unex- 

we have demonstrated that a wood building can be made 



practically fire-proof if erected upon our plan. 




Interior View of Fire-I'roofing Applied to Wooden Construction. 

Our object in endeavoring to introduce this method of fire-proofing has been to 
cheapen the cost so that owners can afford to take advantage of the system for buildings 
in which an absolutely fire-proof system could not be incorporated on account of the ex- 
pense. Many large and important buildings are erected, without protection from fire for 
the interior, that could, by the use of our tile, be made practically fire-proof at an advance 



64- 



CLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 



on the original cost of not to exceed ten per cent, while at the same time the building 
would be constructed with so much better materials that the additional cost would be more 
than compensated for, say nothing of the protection against fire.' 

Our method of applying tile to woodwork is clearly shown on the drawing which 
represents the interior of a building constructed with wood joists, etc. Beginning with 
the floors all the exposed woodwork is covered with fire-clay ceiling tile, which is applied 
directly upon the soffits of the joists, as shown upon the drawings. These tiles are 12x12 
inch, by J^ inch thick, and are formed with grooved edges or ends and supported in 



>Y«fa!»jju]lfJHi i (ja»j^M«ijua«i»g > i^HiKT' ^M" t ""'»«^a n 




View of a Suspended Ceiling. 

place by 1 j£ No. 14 band iron, which is in turn secured to the joists with 3 inch barbed 
nails and galvanized iron separators in such a manner as to prevent the tile coming 
within y 2 inch of the wood, thus affording an opportunity for the circulation of air, prevent- 
ing dry rot, and, in case of a fire, reducing the hazard of the heated tile? igniting the wood. 

The band irons are punched with holes at regular intervals, corresponding with the 
distances between center of the joists or rafters to which the ceiling is attached, and are 
securely held in place by the nails. No provision, other than what would be necessary for 
attaching wood lath, is required for our suspended tile ceilings, as they can be applied to 
any form of woodwork, without special preparation. The ceiling tiles are made of fire- 
clay, medium hard burned, and are scratched before being burned, to afford a good key 
for the plaster finish. These tile we have tested to withstand the hottest fire for a space of 
one and one-half hours without allowing the wood joists to burn; the tile takes the place ot 
the ordinary wood lath, and forms an excellent base for the plastering. The tops of the 
joists are protected either with bridging tile set between them or else with 2 inch thick 
cement grouting. 

After the floors are securely protected, the interior partitions are then erected. These 
are constructed of Hollow Tile, which are in themselves absolutely fire-proof. Our iyi 
inch furring tiles are used on all the exterior walls instead of wood, and all the iron col- 
umns and girders are thoroughly incased with tile. A building constructed upon this plan 
we claim will withstand all ordinary fires, in a city where there is a fairly good fire depart- 
ment, and while we do not claim that the building is absolutely fire-proof, as it would be 
if constructed with I-beams and Hollow Tile Arches, we do claim for the system that it is 
practically proof against fire, and considering the low rate at which the protection is ob- 
tained, certainly a most valuable addition to the building trade. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 



FIRE-PROOFING. 



AMONG tli«.- recent buildings wholly or partially fire-proofed by us, we refer to the 
follow illy: 



( HRONICI R Btlll DINC 

■ma Tufa i kk (in part) 
First NATIONAL Bank (.in part) 
Cm Hall .... 
County Building 
Hai i of Rei 
Hoi. yoke Block (in pari) 
i'.itn IV Building (in prut | 



San Francisco 



Los Angeles 

Woodland, Cal. 
Seattle, W. 

San Diego 



Burnham & Root . Architects 

J. M. Wood . 

Wright & Sanders 

Caukin & Haas 

Curlett, Eisen & Cuthbertson 

T.J.Welsh 

Geo. W. Dornbach 

Comstock & Trotsche 



TESTIMONIAL 

Covering a Test of Our Hollow Tile Floor Arches. 

Office of Wright & Sanders, Architects. 

San Francisco, Oct. 20, 1S89. 
To Whom it may Concern: 

During the past week we have witnessed a test of a fire clay hollow tile floor arch 
made by Gladding, McBean & Co., of this city, formed of tiles specially made to our 
order, which carried a center load of 1600 lbs. per square foot of surface, without showing 
any signs of fracture. Seventy (70) lbs. was then added, causing a hair crack to appear 
in the mortar joint, along the center line of the arch. 

The arch was five feet in span, and the tiles six inches in depth. 

WRIGHT & SANDERS. 



Roman Brick. 



We have recently added to the numerous products of our works, the manufacture of 
Roman brick, for building purposes. 

These modern Roman bricks are one and a-half inches thick, four inches wide, and 
twelve inches lbng, and are made of fire-clay, burned to a dark straw color, and are very 
strong as well as fire-proof. 

By reason of their peculiar shape, a skilled mechanic may work innumerable designs in 
a wall, and will not fail to produce beautiful effects about the doors, windows and cornices. 
The courses are thin, but when laid and pointed with white or colored mortars, their 
appearance is both striking and artistic. 

When requesting prices, please state quantity required. 



66 GLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 

TABLE OF WEIGHTS, ETC. 

OF ALL SIZES OF 

Hollotc Tile, for Fire-Proofing Purposes. 



ALSO 



Sizes of Iron Beams to be used with Hollow Tile Floor Arches. 



HOLLOW TILE FLOOR ARCHES. 



Depth 






Weight 


sizes of Iron I-Beams. 






Description . 


Maximum 


per 




















Safe Span. 




14 feet Span 


iS feet Span 


22 feet Span 


26 feet Span 


Arch. 






Sq. Ft. 


ana under. 


and under. 


and under. 


and under. 


6 in. 


Standard. 


4 ft. io in. 


23 lbs. 


6 in. l't I-beam 


7 in. l't I-beam 


Sin. l't I-b'm 


10 in. l't I-b'm 


7 in. 


Standard. 


5 ft. o in. 


25 lbs. 


7 in. l't I-beam 


S in. l't I-beam 


9 in. l't I-b'm 


10 in. l't I-b'm 


Sin. 


Standard. 


5 ft. 6 in. 


29 lbs. 


7 in. l't I-beam 


8 in. l't I-beam 


9 in. l't I-b'm 


10^ l't I-b'm 


9 m. 


Standard. 


6 ft. o in. 


33 lbs. 


8 in. l't I-beam 


9 in. l't I-beam 


10 in. l't I-b'm 


12 in. l't I-b'm 


io in. 


Web. 


6 ft . 6 in . 


40 lbs. 


9 in. l't I-beam 


10 in. l't I-beam 


10^ l't I-b'm 


12 in. he'vy " 


6 in. 


Large Span. 


20 ft. o in. 


35 As- 









The maximum safe span given above is for a uniform load of 250 pounds per square 
foot, equally distributed upon the floor arches; but in cases of necessity the spans could 
be increased slightly, without danger of settlement. The sizes of iron I-beams indicated 
for the different spans of floor arches are based upon practical experience, and are calcu- 
lated to sustain, including the weight of the construction, a uniformly distributed load of 
130 pounds per superficial foot, which is the usual factor for ordinary floors. The iron 
beams, when set in place, should invariably be bolted together with ^ inch tie -rods, 
secured to the web of the beams, and drawn tightly to place with nut and thread. These 
tie-rods should be set from 8 feet to 10 feet apart. 



HOLLOW TILE WALLS AND PARTITIONS. 



Thickness of Wall. 



Maximum Safe Height. 



Maximum Safe Length. 



2 inches. 

3 inches. 

4 inches. 

5 inches. 

6 inches. 



15 feet. 
1 8 feet. 
30 feet . 
35 f «t. 
45 feet. 



20 feet. 
30 feet. 
40 feet. 
55 feet. 
75 feet. 



Weight per Square Foot. 



10 pounds. 
.15 pounds. 
17 pounds. 
20 pounds. 
24 pounds. 



In one instance our 5-inch tile has formed a partition 40 feet high and 60 feet in 
length, and given entire satisfaction. We have also built a 4 inch Hollow Tile partition 
20 feet long and 132 feet high, without extraneous support. We will make special sizes 
and forms of partition tile to order. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 



HOLLOW AND SOLID TILE SUSPENDED CEILING. 



site of Tile Weight per Sq. It Description. 



)£xllxia in. 7 pounds. Solid. Can be applied cilher to wooden joists or iron beams 

without reference to their span. See drawing page 64. 
3 m:\14 1 ; in. 14'. pounds. Hollow. On 3x3 T-irons, see drawing page 60. 



HOLLOW TILE ROOFING. 



Tbickm 



2 inches. 

3 inches. 

3 inches. 
1 '2 inches. 



Sizes of Tile using 
T-iron purliues. 



» in. or less. 
! in. or less. 



12X12 in. or less. 
12x12 in. or less. 



Weight perSq. Ft. 



15 pounds. 

16 pounds. 

15 pounds. 
S pounds. 



Description. 



Hollow. 
Hollow. 



Hollow. 
Hollow. 



Sizes of tile for wood rafters can 
be made same as for T-iron 
purlines or less, to suit place 
where they are to be laid. 

For Mansard Roofs. 

For Mansard Roofs. 



On page 58 a full description is given of all the above Roofing Tiles; also information 
regarding the weathering material suitable to be used with the different kinds. 



SOLID TILE FOR FIRE-PROOFING IRON OR WOODEN COLUMNS. 



Thickness 
of Tile. 



Diameter of 
Column. 



6 inch, round. 

7 inch, round. 



Weight per 
J,ineal Foot. 



1 inch. 

1 inch. 

i' 4 inch. S inch, round. 

\% inch. I 9 inch, round. 

\ l /z inch. 1 10 inch, round. ! 



22 pounds. 
27 pounds. 
39 pounds. 
43 pounds. 
48 pounds. 



Description. 



Solid Tile. 
Solid Tile. 
Solid Tile. 
Solid Tile. 
Solid Tile. 



Thickness 1 


of Tile. 


i'A 


inch. 


I.H 


inch. 


i(4 


inch. 


iS4 


inch. 


i'A 


inch. 



Diameter of 
Column. 



11 inch, round. 

12 inch, round, 
i 3 inch, round. 

14 inch, round. 

15 inch, round. 



Weight per 
Lineal Foot. 



54 pounds. 
60 pounds. 
64 pounds. 

70 pounds. 
7S pounds. 



Description. 



Solid Tile. 
Solid Tile. 
Solid Tile. 
Solid Tile. 
Solid Tile. 



HOLLOW TILE FURRING FOR OUTSIDE WALLS. 



Thickness of Furring. 



Weight per Square Foot. 



\y 2 inches. 

2 inches. 

3 inches. 



7^2 pounds. 

%% pounds. 

10 pounds. 



Special estimates will be made for any form of Fire-proof Tile required. Samples of 
Tile sent free on application. Drawings will be made in detail for any particular form of 
Fire-proof Tile required. Write for prices and any further information desired. 



CLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 



Terra Cotta in Architecture. 



One of the most marked improvements connected with the building trade in this 
country during the past decade is the use of Terra Cotta for the purposes of architectural 
decoration. Ten years ago a majority of those engaged in the building trade did not 
know of its existence, so accustomed were they to simple brick-work, painted wood, or 
decoration in galvanized or cast iron. 

Architects and builders now realize that in Terra Cotta they have a fire-proof material 
of beauty and durability, for the ornamentation of buildings. 

The oldest relics of art bear witness to the enduring qualities of Terra Cotta, and 
many of the most beautiful and costly buildings of to-day prove conclusively its present 
growing popularity. 

We have spared neither time, money nor energy to enable us to offer the best quality 
of Terra Cotta that can be produced. The bodies of our wares are unexcelled for strength, 
beauty and durability, and our aim is to have constantly the best artists that are to be pro- 
cured, so that we may excel from an artistic point of view, as well as in other respects. 

On the following pages we have illustrated a few of the designs in Architectural Terra 
Cotta manufactured by us, for the exterior decoration of buildings. 

We can supply at short notice, from our own or special designs, 

Red or Buff Terra Cotta Tiles, Panels, Cornices, Window 

Caps and Sills, Belt and String Courses, Ridge and 

Hip Tiles, Finials, Keys, Letters, Figures, Etc.. Etc. 






SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 



69 



The Quality and Variety of our Architectural Terra Cotta 
can be seen in the following Buildings: 



San Francisco. 



Pioneer Mall, Fourth St. .... 

i .1 ADDING, McBKAN & Co 

S. LACHMAN, Market and Fremont Sts. 
New California Hotel and Theatre 
New Chronicle Building, .... 
Mr. M. H. De Young's Alcazar Buildinc 
Col. Peter Donahue's Union Foundry Block 
Mr. Cmas. Crocker's Bush St. Building . 
Mrs. J. C. Johnson's, Nos. 3 and 5 Front St. 
Mr. Moses Rosen baum, Front and California Sts. 
Unitarian Church, Geary and Franklin Sts. . 
Children's Play House, Golden Gate Park 
Sharon Warehouse, Jessie St. ... 

Bishop Building, Suiter St 

Mr. Geo. T. Marye's Building 

MESSRS. Boyd & Dayis', Second and F"olsom Sts. 

Wells, Fargo & Co's, New Montgomery and Mission Sts. 

Mr. E. J. Baldwin's, Market, bet. Fifth and Sixth Sis. 

Cathedral, Van Ness Ave. and O'Farrell St. 

Mr. W. H. Crocker's Residence, California and Jones Sts. 

Mrs. M. A. Hampton's Building, Fourth and Minna Sts. 

Mr. Wm. A. Aldrich, Mission St. .... 

Capt. A. M. Burns' Residence, Washington and Hyde Sts. 



Oakland. 



Architect. 

Messrs. Wright & Sanders. 



Mr. J. M. Wood. 
Messrs. Burnham & Root. 
Mr. Wm. Patton. 

Mr. Edward R. Swain. 
Mr. H. C Macy. 
Messrs. Saalfield & Kohlberg. 
Messrs. Percy & Hamilton. 

Mr. W. F. Smith. 



Mr. J. M. "Curtis. 

Messrs. Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge. 

Mr. A. A. Bennett. 

Mr. T.J. Welsh. 

Messrs. Curlett & Cuthbertson. 

Mr. C.J. I. Devlin. 

Mr. Maguire. 

Messrs. J. C. Mathews & Son. 



Messrs, Blake & Moffitt's Block, Eighth and Broadway. Messrs. J. C. Mathews & Son. 
St. Mary's College Building Mr. J. J. Clark. 



Berkeley. 



Chemical Laiioratory, University of California Mr. Clinton Day. 



Los Angeles. 

Mr. T. D. Mori's, Main St 

Mr. Walter S. Maxwell's, Main and Court Sts. 
Mr. L. L. Braduury's Residence 
Women's Christian Temperance Union 

Westminster Hotel, 

Building, Cor. Spring and First Sts. 

Mr. J. B. Lankersiiam's Main St. Building 

F. S. Chadbourne's Buildinc. 



Messrs. Boring & Haas. 
Messrs. Curlett & Cuthbertson. 
Messrs. S. & J. C. Newsoni. 
Messrs. Caukin & Haas. 
Mr. R. B. Young. 



Messrs. Caukin & Haas. 



70 GLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 

Sacramento. Architect. 

California State Bank Messrs. Curlett & Cuthbertson. 

San Diego. 

Messrs. Morse, Whalev & Dalton's Building Messrs. Comstock & Trotsche. 

Stockton. 

Mr. R. E. Wilhoit's Building Mr. Wm. G. Copeland. 

Mr. A. Washburn's " 

Fresno. 

Southern Pacific Co's Depot Building . . . Mr. Arthur Brown. 

Messrs. Thos. E. Hughes & Son's Hotel . . Mr. Jas. Seadler. 

Pasadena. 

Messrs. Ward Bros. Building Mr. H. Ridgeway. 

First National Bank Building .... " " 

San Buenaventura. 

Mr. L. T- Rose, Hotei Messrs. Curlett & Cuthbertson. 

Merced. 

Mr. C. H. Huffman's Building .... Mr. Chas. R. Manning. 

Red Bluff. 

Messrs. Cone & Kimball's Building .... Mr. A. A. Cook. 

St. Helena. 

Odd Fellows' Hall Mr. Albert Schropfer. 

Mr. T. Parrott's Residence " " 

Tulare. 

Messrs. J. Goldman & Co's Building . . . Mr. H. C. Macy. 

Masonic Hai.i " " 

Eureka. 

Mr. Wm. Carson's Residence Messrs. S. & J. C. Newsom. 

Bakersfield. 

Southern Pacific Co's Depot Building . . . Mr. Arthur Brown. 

Mayfield. 

Leland Stanford, Jr., University .... Messrs. Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge. 

Portland, Oregon. 

Mr. J. C. Bayer's Building 

Portland Savings Bank Building .... Mr. W. H. Williams. 
Building, N. W. corner Morrison and Front Sts. . . " " 

Mr. Levy White's Building Mr. J. Krumbein. 

First Prescyterian Church Messrs. McCaw & Martin. 

Judge Marquam's Theatre and Business Block . Mr. J. M.Wood. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 



Astoria, Oregon. 

fur. Geo. I i wf.i 's Bum ding 



\il In 

Williams <v Smith. 



Seattle, Washington. 

Mrs. Austin A. Bell's Building 
Mk. H. L. Yesler's Pioneer Building 
Stare Estate, Washington Block 
Mr. G. Morris Haller's Building 
Messrs. Schwabacher Bros. & Co. 
Merchants' National Bank Building 

Messrs. KlTTENGBR & Terry's BLOCK 
Hotel Denny 



Mr. E. H. Fisher. 



Mr. Geo. W. Dombach. 

Mr. H. Steinman. 

Messrs. Wickersham .Sc Jennings. 



Tacoma, Washington. 

Messrs. Blackwell & Anderson's Building 

Mr. John Baker's Building 

Mr. T. O. Abbott's Post Office Building 

Gen. J. W. Sprague's Building 

The Thomson Pratt Building 

Mr. Wolf's Block 

Messrs. Barlow & Catlan's Building 



l'icl. 



les & Sutton. 



Messrs. Proctor & Dennis. 



Port Townsend, Washington. 

Capt. Tibbals' . 



Whiteway & Schroeder. 



Puyallup, Washington. 

Farmers' Bank Building 



Mr. C. E. Sears. 



Olympia, Washington. 

First National Bank Building 



Messrs. Parkinson & Ever-.. 



Ellensburgh, Wash. 

Kleinburg Bros'. Building 



Mr. I . B. Randall. 



Victoria, B. C. 

Hon. R. Dunsmuir's Residence 



Messrs. Williams & Smith. 



El Paso, Texas. 

Wells, Fargo & Co's Building 



Messrs. Stewart & Carpenter. 



Carson City, Nevada. 

Court House and Post Office Building 



U. S. Supervising Architect. 



Reno, Nevada. 

Southern Pacific Co's Depot 



Mr. Arthur Brown. 



GLADDING, M c B E A N & COMPANY, 



Price List of Tiles. 

( See illustrations on opposite page. ) 

NOTE.-II'te ordering any of the TILES listed on this page, please give the dimensions wanted, us well as 
tlie number. For instance, if yon desire our No. 515 cither &" "X. 8" ', 13}i"x 13-%", or of any of the other dimen- 
sions given in the brace or bracket opposite this number, so state it in your order. 



Number. Dimensions. Price each. 



500 

515 



530 

535 
540 



545 \ 



555 I 
560 I 



• 5^ x 5'A i n ^es $ .35 

.8 x 8 inches 75 

. io^ixio$4 inches 1.50 

.1334x13^ inches 2.50 

.\6}i-Ki6 l /& inches 3.50 



5 x 5 inches 30 

520 \ 7/^ x 7}i inches 60 

525 J ..10 xio inches 1.40 

I2^xi2j4 inches 2.00 



• 7/^ x 1 X A inches 60 

.10 xio inches 1.40 

.12^3x12^ inches 2.00 

.15 X15 inches 3.00 

. i2 I Axi2 I A inches 2.00 



( 8 x 8 inches 75 

55° " 

I 133/8x133/8 inches 2.50 



I2j4xi2y 2 inches 2.50 

565 j .". 15 X15 inches 4.00 

570 I io^xio^Hs inches 2.00 

Discount, per cent. 



SAN FRANCIS CO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 



73 



TILES. 
prices a»d dimensions on apposite page.) 




No. 500. 




>- , - 





No. 505. 




No. 520. 




3 






jy 


fefe 


Mr 




aiiia 


1" 

A 



No. 525. 




No. 535. 









No. 565. 



No. 570. 



74 



GLADDINC, McBEAN & COMPANY, 



FRIEZES. 




No. 600. S2.00 lineal foot. 




No. 601. $3.50 lineal foot. 




No. 602. $2.50 lineal foot. 



lllllllllllllillllllllllllllllllllHllllllllll 



■llll 



■■mini 




lllllllllllillHIIIttlllll - 



No. 603. $2.00 lineal foot. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 



75 



PANELS 




k~- - i— — H 

No. 605. Price, $7.50. 



_¥. 



No. 606. Price, $7.50 











- 4'-0" 


- > 


i'i r - 








- 


.= =—- 


f? 




^^^^^ 


|vA 




^^^M§{ 1 




; i. 
















- SE 




- - 



No. 607. Price, $10.00. 



GLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 




No. 6O8. Price, $10.00. 




No. 609. Price, $6.50. 




No. 610. Price, $22.50. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 



PANELS 




No. 611. Price, $4.00. 




No. 612. Price, $8.00. 




No. 613. Price, SS.OO. 



GLADDING, M c B E A N & COMPANY, 



PANELS. 




No. 614. Price, $20.00. 




No. 615. Price, $35.00. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 



79 



PANELS. 




No. 616. Price, $20.00. 




No. 617. Price, $20.00. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 

MEDALLIONS. 




No. 711. GENERAL SUTTER. 

Medallions made for the Pioneer Building, San Francisco. Prices for similar work on application 



GLADDING, M c B E A N & COMPANY, 



MEDALLION and PANELS. 




No. 712. LIBERTY. 
♦10' 2" 




No. 61S. Pioneers Crossing the Plains. 




II' 3"- 

No. 619. Raising the Bear Flag at Sonoma, Cal., 1846. 

Medallion and Panels made for the Pioneer Bnilding, San Francisco. Prices given for similar work on application. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 



LU 

z 

< 
a. 




o 

N 
ID 



2 



a. 

a, 
< 

c 
o 

3 



CO 

,3 



GLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 



MOULDINGS, Etc. 



K2%-4^-» 




No. 750. 4-0 ots. foot. 




No. 751. 40 ots. foot. 



|<,2^ ■•*•■- 4 > 



V /TMfe^C 



No. 752. 50 ots. foot. 



-2%-4-"--H 




No. 753. 50 ots. foot. 








<-3i"->k- 


-4-'- 


•••■> 










r 


A 






! 


■ 




kS 


en 

■N- 




■■■■■- 1 \ 






■■ 


\ ; - 



No. 754. $1.25 foot 



No. 755. $l.O0 foot. 






K~3"->k 


_ 4 ^ 






^r^ 






"^ 





_\l 


en 

V 



No. 756. $1.25 foot. 



No. 757. $1.00 foot. 





No. 758. $1.50foot. 



|<--3£ : ->! 

■lo. 75S. $1/75 foot. 




No. 760. $1.50 foot. 1 




No. 761. $1.75 foot. 



Discount, 



Per Cent. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 



85 



BELT COURSES 







No. 770. $3.00 lineal foot. 



No. 771. $2.00 lineal foot. 




No. 772. S2.50 lineal foot. 



No. 773. $2.50 lineal foot. 



BALUSTRADE 




a 






No. 780. 

Prices given upon application stating quantity required. 



GLADDING, M c B E A N & COMPANY, 



PILASTER CAPS 



|< — r !.'. 5 V 




No. 800. Returns OS!;" Price, $7.50. 






iii 1 \> 



' \< ----- I ' 10 " - ■ ; >| 

No. SOI. Returns O' 3'A" Price, $12. SO. 




No. S02. Returns O 8H" Price, $25.00. 



We can make the Caps on this page with returns of a greater depth, if desired. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN, CALIFORNIA. 



87 



PILASTER CAPS 




|<-~-| ' 3"DIAM. J 
No. S03. Price, $30.00. 




|<- ,< 5 ", ^. 84 »>| 

No. S04. Price, $20.00. 




No. S05. Price, $20.00. 



GLADDING, McBBAN & COMPANY, 



WIND OW HEADS 




No. 900, $15.00. 



No. 901, $10.00. 




I! I /// 

,' ?' A 



3' G " 




No. 902, $12.50. 



No. 903, $15.00. 




No. 904, $20.00. No. 905. $20.00. 

Special Prices on Application, stating quantity and width of opening. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 



89 



WINDOW HEADS 






r 



— 






._73 






No. 906, $20.00. 





P 



No. 907, $20.00. 




No. 90S. $30.00. 



GLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 



KEYS. 





No. 850. Price, $4.00. 



I 4./.'. ->J 





l< '' 



No. 855. Price, $3.50. No. 85*. Price, S1O.O0. 




■~>| k---6-^--H 



"R ra= 

No. 852. Price, $5.00. 




~^ 



N — 10— H 

No. 851. Price, $5.00. 



!<■-- r 3" --->) 




k- 7---'->| 

No. 856. Price, $5.00. 

- is -A 



In Ordering, give Radius of Arch. 




10* -I 

No. 853. Price, 85. OO. 



SAN FRANCISCO a 



nd ...NCOLN. CALIFORNIA- 



CRESTINGS 




tf: % 







No. 950. Sl-OO lineal foot. 




"k 12" * u 

No. 951. Sl-25 lineal foot. 




k io" ->|<- io ; -'- >l 

No. 952. S2.00 lineal foot. 





lit 



fc««»^» 



|<- 16-'-- 3\t-~ —|6--'- ~*| 

No. 953. S3.00 lineal foot. 

should state angles of roofs. 



Note. — Orders sli 



GLADDING, McBEAN & COMPANY, 



WA LL COPING. 




No. 970. 50o. foot. 




< — 12^' > 

No. 971. 75c. foot. 



F I N I AL 




iiiiiiiiii 

2'0" 



No. 980. Any Pitch, Price, $7.SO. 





No. 972. 50c. foot. 



(.— 12"— >| 
No. 973. 75c. foot. 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 



CHIMNEY COPING. 

No. 990. No. 991. No. 992. 



>0 l\r Flue 





No. 993. No. 994. 



No. 995. 




S. 00 Pet Flue 




No. 997. 




04. 00 Per Flue 



GLADDING, M c B E A N 



COMPANY, 



INDBX. 



Acid Receivers 
Architectural Terra Cotta- 



-Balustrade ..... 

Belt Courses ..... 

Chimney Coping .... 

Crestings ..... 

Finials ...... 

Friezes . 

Keys ...... 

Medallions ..... 

Mouldings ..... 

Panels ...... 

Pilaster Caps ..... 

Quality and Variety, Where to be Seen 
Terra Cotta in Architecture 
Testimonial as to Quality, etc. 
Tiles ...... 

Wall Coping ..... 

Window Heads .... 



Bonnet Tops 

Chimney Caps 

" Pipe 

" " — Directions for Erecting 

Tops 

Culvert Pipe ....... 

Drain Tile 

Fire Brick, Tile and Clay .... 

Fire-Proofing — Arches for Floors 

Buildings Fire-Proofed by our Firm 
" Ceilings ..... 

Column Casing .... 
Description .... 
Furring . . ' . 

Girder Casing ... 
Iron in Fire-Proof Construction 
Partitions . . . • . 

Roof Construction 



29 

85 

S5 

93 

9i 

92 

74 

90 

81-82 

84 

-79, 82-83 

86-87 

69-71 

68 

96 

72-73 

92 

88-89 

37 

37 

32 

34-36 

38-44 

23-24 

25-27 

3° 
53-55 
65 
60 
62 

51-52 

61 

62 

62 

56-57 

58-59 



SAN FRANCISCO and LINCOLN. CALIFORNIA. 95 

rv.,1 

Fim Proofing — Slow Burning Construction 63 64 

Suspended Ceilings .......' 64 

Testimonial as to Strength ...... i>5 

Weights of all Forms 66-67 

Wood in Fire-Prool construction ..... 63-64 

Fi ower Pots 45 

Flue Linings 33 

Fi 1 sh Tank Siphons ix-21 

Grease Traps 8 

Legal Inch of Water 15 

Miners' Inch 01 Water 15 

Pedestals . . ' 4§ _ 49 

Roman Brick 65 

SEWER Pipe — Description ......... 6 

Directions for Laying ........ 16 

Price Lists .......... 5-7 

Standard Patterns ......... 4 

Sewers — General Information on the Subject ...... 9 _I 3 

Requirements of a Good Sewer ....... 14 

Ventilation ........... 17 

Slop Hoppers ............ 7 

Starting Plates 31 

Sub-Irrigation Tile 25-27 

Thimbles 31 

Vases 46-50 

Water Consumed in Cities and Towns 14 

Water Cooler and Filter 29 

Water Closet Bowls 7 

Water Pipe 22 

Well Tubing 23 



TAB L,B S. 

Drain Tile — Capacity 2S 

Fire Proofing — Weights, etc 66-67 

Rainfall — In Cubic Feet and Gallons per Acre ...... 2S 

Sanitary Drainage — Results therefrom 10 

Sewers — Comparative Cost of Cleaning ....... 11 

Discharging Capacity ......... 15 

Inclination ........... 13 



GLADDING, M c B E A N & COMPANY. 



Testimonial. 



As will be seen by the following testimonial, we have been awarded the highest prize 
for our exhibit of Architectural Terra Cotta, in competition with other manufacturers, 
at the Twenty- Fourth Industrial Exposition of the Mechanics' Institute, 
recently held in this city: 

"We have much pleasure in drawing special attention to the excellent exhibit of 
Gladding, McBean & Co., showing as it does, marked enterprise as well as laudable and 
successful effort to establish in California a very notable industry, and displaying consider- 
able perfection, both in technical and artistic qualities of the work produced, which in our 
opinion ranks with much of the best work produced in the Eastern States and Europe. 

" They are entitled to a Grand Silver Medal for the best exhibit of Architectural 
Terra Cotta. 

" John Wright, 

" (Of Messrs. Wright & Sanders, Architects.) 

" G. W. Percy, 

" (Of Messrs. Percy & Hamilton, Architects.) 

" Thomas Ashworth, 

" (Sup't of Public Streets.) 

" Edwin Fretwell, 

' ' Committee. 

" In accordance with the recommendation of the committee, a Grand Silver Medal 
was awarded by the Board of Trustees of the Institute. 

"J. H. Culver, 

"Sect'y." 



NOTICE. 

From Six to Eight Weeks' time is required in which to 
produce Special Designs in Architectural Work. PLEASE 
ORDER EARLY, to insure Prompt Delivery. All work, 
unless otherwise specified, will be made with a bond of 
four inches. 



^'KfM